Molecular Role of Nitric Oxide in Secondary Products Production </span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif"> in <i>Ginkgo biloba </i>Cell Suspension Culture
Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor) treatment on the enhancement of secondary metabolites production, oxidative stress mediators (O2-.) accumulation and antioxidant defense enzymes of Ginkgo biloba callus culture was investigated. On one hand, the obtained data showed a highly metabolic modification of chemical constituents, PAL activity and various antioxidant defense enzymes (APX, SOD), which gradually increased in response to SNP treatments. On the other hands the high NO levels significantly increased the accumulation of various oxidative burst of O2-.. MS basal medium supplemented with casein hydrolase (500 mg/L), NAA and BA at equal concentration (0.5 mg/L) recorded the highest number of regenerated shoots (4.81 cm) and shoot height (4.96 cm) as well as root number (2.25 cm) and root length (4.5 cm). The highest survival (40 %) was shown in acclimatization on the mixture containing sand, peat moss and vermiculite (1: 1: 1, v/v/v), which significantly confirmed and reflected the variation in survival percentage. Meanwhile, higher treatment (500 μM) of NO positively enhanced secondary products accumulation of total tannins, saponins, phenols and total flavonoids in G. biloba callus culture.
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