Influence of Harvest Term on the Content of Carvacrol, p-Cymene, Î³-Terpinene and Î²-Caryophyllene in the Essential Oil of <i>Satureja montana</i>
The aim of the studies was to determine the optimal term of harvest for Satureja montana L. (winter savory) in order to obtain the essential oil rich in antioxidative compounds such as carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene. Essential oils of S. montanaaerial parts were obtained by hydrodistillation in Deryng-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In total, 30 compounds were identified in the savory volatile oil under different harvesting terms (before flowering, during flowering and after the flowering), that represented 94.61 to 97.55% of the oils. The major components were carvacrol (65.43 to 69.99%), its precursors: p-cymene (3.69 to 9.69%) and γ-terpinene (1.51 to 5.92%) as well as β-caryophyllene (2.74 to 4.71%). Moreover, the term of harvest had a significant effect on the content of main essential oil constituents. The highest concentrations of carvacrol, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were observed in the herb collected before flowering, while the highest amounts of p-cymene were noted after the flowering.
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