Different Habitats Show Similar Genetic Structure of Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) in Lithuania
We studied genetic diversity within and among populations of warty cabbage (Bunias orientalis L.), which is an alien species in Lithuania and other Baltic countries. In Lithuania, this weed colonises two main types of habitats: railway/roadsides and meadows on riversides. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of invasive populations of B. orientalis in Lithuania and consider the impact of diverse habitats on the partitioning of genetic diversity using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) carried out on the basis of ISSR showed that there is high genetic differentiation (46%) among populations of B. orientalis, which is probably caused by the founder effect and limited gene flow. However, we observed no impact of habitat on the genetic difference among populations. Similar levels of ISSR polymorphic loci were observed in riverside (P = 31.67%) and railway/roadsides (P = 30.51%) populations. UPGMA cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) also did not show grouping of studied populations according to habitat type. High genetic differentiation among populations, as indicated by ISSR markers, confirm multiple independent introductions of this species in Lithuania.
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