The role of endophytes and rhizobacteria to combat drought stress in wheat


  • Asif MUKHTIAR University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Botany, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Wang LIHONG Baicheng Normal University, College of Tourism and Geographic Science, Baicheng, Jilin (CN)
  • Athar MAHMOOD University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Agronomy, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Muaz AMEEN University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Botany, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Muhammad Anjum ZIA University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Biochemistry, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Tahreem ARSHAD University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Botany, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Maria NAQVE University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Botany, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Hafiz A. WAHAB University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Agronomy, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Adnan RASHEED Hunan Agricultural University, College of Agronomy, Changsha 410128 (CN)
  • Saima ASGHAR University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Botany, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Asma ZAFAR University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Botany, 38000 Faisalabad (PK)
  • Muhammad U. HASSAN Jiangxi Agricultural University, Research Center on Ecological Sciences, Nanchang (CN)



drought stress, gene expression, mitigation strategies, molecular markers, PGPR, signaling


Wheat production suffers greatly from drought stress, resulting in yield losses. Endophytes and rhizobacteria have been recognized as a valuable source in mitigating of drought stress by improving plant resistance and growth. In this review, we discuss how endophytes and rhizobacteria help wheat cope with drought stress. During drought stress, endophytes have been found to increase plant water usage efficiency and decrease water loss. Endophytes are harmless microorganisms that live inside plant tissues. Rhizobacteria establish colonies in the root system through various procedures, including phytohormones production, modification of root architecture, and activation of stress-inducible genes, thereby promoting plant growth and enhancing stress resistance. Numerous studies have shown how endophytes and rhizobacteria can improve the potential of wheat to withstand drought. For instance, inoculation with endophytes like Piriformospora indica and Bacillus spp. has been proven to enhance wheat plant yield and drought resistance. Similarly, it has been proven that rhizobacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Azospirillum brasilense enhance drought tolerance through a variety of mechanisms. To minimize the consequence of wheat under drought conditions, the efficient method is the use of endophytes and rhizobacteria as biofertilizers, which could ultimately boost yields and sustainability. More research needs to be done so that it can be used most effectively in the field and so that we can better understand how they work. We explained current understanding of the role and mechanisms of endophytes and rhizobacteria in minimizing drought stress effects in wheat. Additionally, we highlighted areas of limited knowledge and suggested directions for future research. This review will provide the new suggestion on the role of endophytes and rhizobacteria in mitigating the drought stress in plants.


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How to Cite

MUKHTIAR, A., LIHONG, W., MAHMOOD, A., AMEEN, M., ZIA, M. A., ARSHAD, T., NAQVE, M., WAHAB, H. A., RASHEED, A., ASGHAR, S., ZAFAR, A., & HASSAN, M. U. (2023). The role of endophytes and rhizobacteria to combat drought stress in wheat. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 51(4), 13453.



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DOI: 10.15835/nbha51413453

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