Breeding potential of morphological and phytochemical characteristics of landraces and autochthone varieties of Capsicum annuum L. in Republic of Serbia


  • Jelena MLADENOVIĆ University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Agronomy, Cara Dušana st., 34, 32000 Čačak (RS)
  • Nenad PAVLOVIĆ University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Agronomy, Cara Dušana st., 34, 32000 Čačak (RS)
  • Miloš MARJANOVIĆ University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Agronomy, Cara Dušana st., 34, 32000 Čačak (RS)
  • Dalibor TOMIĆ University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Agronomy, Cara Dušana st., 34, 32000 Čačak (RS)
  • Mirko GRUBIŠIĆ Institute for Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials, Franše d’ Eperea 86, 11000 Belgrade (RS)
  • Vladimir G. ZORNIĆ Institute for forage crops, 37000 Globoder, Kruševac (RS)
  • Jasmina ZDRAVKOVIĆ Institute for forage crops, 37000 Globoder, Kruševac (RS)



cluster analysis, landraces, pepper, PCA, Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index


By maintaining a large number of local pepper genotypes, it is possible to preserve a large number of desirable genes that can be used in different pepper selection programs. The aim of this study was to classify a part of the collection of 15 genotypes (11 populations and 4 varieties originating from autochthonous populations) of peppers originating from Republic of Serbia. Morphological characteristics (weight, length, width, pericarp thickness, color before fruit ripening, shape and number of fruit chambers) and 10 phytochemical parameters of the fruit (carbohydrates, essential oils, ash, cellulose, beta carotene, potassium, iron, vitamin C, total phenols, antioxidant activity) were studied. Using statistical multivariate techniques (PCA and Cluster analysis), the degree of variation between local populations was assessed and diversity was determined based on the morphological and nutritional characteristics of pepper fruits. Morphological traits were determined using two main components that accounted for 70.3% of the variability. These components accounted for 49.8% of the variation in nutritional traits. The ‘Čokotanka’ population would be suitable for individual selection and reduced divergence within the population, since it has 6 tested traits that resulted in high diversity index. Populations ‘Stojankina kletva’, ‘Lalić’ and ‘Strižanka’ would be suitable for recombination of genes to improve the properties of individual selection programs for this vegetable species.


Aklilu S, Abebie B, Wogari D, Tekele Wolde A (2016). Phenotypic diversity analysis of Ethiopian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accessions for pod and qualitative traits. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology 39(2):60-76.

Anilkumar C, Mohan RA, Ramesh S (2021). Breeding potential of crosses derived from parents differing in fruiting habit traits in chilly (Capsicum annuum L.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution Journal 68:45-50.

Anilkumar C, Mohan RA, Ramesh S, Bhavani BP (2020). Inheritance of fruiting habit traits in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Current Science 118(10):1598-1602.

Barroso PA, Rêgo ER, Rêgo MM, Nascimento KS, Nascimento NFF, Nascimento MF … Otoni WC (2012). Analysis of segregating generation for components of seedling and plant height of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for medicinal and ornamental purposes. Acta Horticulturae 953:267-275.

Bozokalfa M, Kadri D, Eşiyok Turhan K (2009). Patterns of phenotypic variation in a germplasm collection of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Turkey. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 7(1):83-95.

Cutler DF, Botha CEJ, Stevenson DW (2008). Anatomy: An Applied Approach. Blackwell, Malden, Mass, USA.

Cvijović M, Aćamović-Đoković G (2005). Praktikum iz Biohemije. Agronomski fakultet. Čačak (srb). [Practicum for biochemistry. Faculty of Agronomy in Čačak, Serbia].

Dagnoko S, Yaro-Diarisso N, Sanogo P, Adetula O, Dolo-Nantoumé A, Gamby-Touré K … Diallo-Ba D (2013). Overview of pepper (Capsicum spp.) breeding in West Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8:1108-1114.

Danojević D, Medić-Pap S (2018). Different multivariate analysis for fruit traits in sweet pepper breeding. Genetika 50(1):121-129.

Do Rego E, Do Rêgo R, Mailson M, Cruz Cosme D, Cecon Paulo R, Amaral Dany SSL, Finger FL (2003). Genetic diversity analysis of peppers: a comparison of discarding variable methods. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 3(1):19-26.

Espín JC, Soler-Rivas C, Wichers HJ (2000). Characterization of the total free radical scavenger capacity of vegetable oils and oil fractions using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(3):648-656.

Eticha F, Bekele E, Belay G, Börner A (2005). Phenotypic diversity in tetraploid wheats collected from Bale and Wello regions of Ethiopia. Plant Genetic Resources 3:35-43.

Fonseca RM, Lopes R, Barros WS, Lopes MTG, Ferreira FM (2008). Morphologic Characterization and Genetic Diversity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Accessions along the Upper Rio Negro-Amazonas. Crop Breeding Applied Biotechnology 8:187-194.

Fratianni F, d’Acierno A, Cozzolino A, Spigno P, Riccardi R, Raimo F … Nazzaro F (2020). Biochemical characterization of traditional varieties of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. Antioxidants 9:556.

Geleta LF, Labuschagne MT, Viljoen CD (2005). Genetic variability in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) estimated by morphological data and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:2361-2375.

Guilherme R, Alfredo A, Nuno R, António MP, José AP (2020). Phenolics and antioxidant activity of green and red sweet peppers from organic and conventional agriculture: a comparative study. Agriculture 10:652.

Ha SH, Kim JB, Park JS, Lee SW, Cho KJ (2007). A comparison of the carotenoid accumulation in Capsicum varieties that show different ripening colors: deletion of the capsanthin-capsorubin synthase gene is not a prerequisite for the formation of a yellow pepper. Journal of Experimental Botany 58:3135-3144.

Ilić Z, Milenković L, Vasić M, Girek Z, Zdravković M, Zdravković J (2013). Old cultivars and populations from traditional pepper-growing regions of Serbia as breeding potential. Journal of Agricultural Science (JAS-Canadian) 5(6):132-140.

IPGRI Avrdc Cate (1995). Descriptors for Capsicum (Capsicum spp.). International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy; the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Taipei, Taiwan; and the Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Trrialba, Costa Rica).

Korkutata FN, Kavaz A (2015). A comparative study of ascorbic acid and capsaicinoid contents in red hot peppers (Capsicum annum L.) grown in Southeastern Anatolia Region. International Journal of Food Properties 18:725-734.

Kuhn HMP, Rosa LB (2016). Plant breeding of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae) – A review. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 10(15):148-154.

Lahbib K, Bnejdi F, El Gazzah M (2012). Genetic diversity evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Tunisia based on morphologic characters African Journal of Agricultural Research 7(23):3413-3417.

Lee SK, Kader A (2000). Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biology and Technology 20:207-220.

Maggioni L (2004). Conservation and use of vegetable genetic resources: A European perspective. Acta Horticulturae 637:13-30.

Mirac S, Halit Y, Hasan P (2022). Morphological characterization of some Besni pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes in Kayseri conditions. International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences 6(1):152-164.

Nagata M, Yamashita I (1992). Simple method for simultaneous determination of chlorophyll and carotenoids in tomato fruit. Journal of Food Science Technology 39:925-928.

Nsabiyera V, Logose M, Ochwo-Ssemakula M, Sseruwagi P, Gibson P, Ojiewo C (2013). Morphological characterization of local and exotic hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) collections in Uganda. Bioremediation, Biodiversity and Bioavailability 7(1):22-32.

Occhiuto PN, Peralta IE, Asprelli PD, Galmarini CR (2014). Characterization of Capsicum germplasm collected in Northwestern Argentina based on morphological and quality traits. AgriScientia 31:63-73.

Özhatay N, Kültür S, Aslan S (2009). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement flora of Turkey IV. Turkish Journal of Botany 33:191-226.

Perucka I, Materska M (2007). Antioxidant vitamin contents of Capsicum annuum fruit extracts as affected by processing and varietal factors. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria 6(4):67-74.

Portis E, Acquadro A, Comino C, Lanteri S (2004). Effect of farmers’ seed selection on genetic variation of a landrace population of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), grown in North-West Italy. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51:581-590.

Sahin M, Yetisir H, Pinar H (2022). Morphological characterization of some Besni pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes in Kayseri conditions. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences 6(1):152-164.

Sandeva N, Jankulovska M, Ivanovska S (2021). Genetic diversity of Macedonian embroidered pepper (Capsicum spp.) based on fruit morphological traits. Acta Horticulture 1320:33-40.

Santos TO, Moulin MM, Rangel LH, Pirovani ROL, Valadares FV, Almeida RN, Silva, LOE (2019). Characterization and diversity of peppers (Capsicum spp.) genotypes based on morphological traits using multivariate analysis. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 39(1):1-10.

Shimeles A, Bekele A, Dagne W, Adeferis TW (2016). Phenotypic diversity analysis of Ethiopian hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) accessions for pod and qualitative traits. Ethiopian Journal of Science 39(2):59-76.

Singleton VL, Orthofer R., Lamuela-Raventós RM (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymology 299:152-178.

Valšíková M, Rehuš M, Komár P, Paulen O (2017). The impact of varieties, ripeness, and heat treatment on the retention of vitamin C and content of soluble solids in sweet pepper. Potravinarstvo 11(1):210-215.

Velimirović D (2013). Optimalizacija, validacija i primena ICP-OES metoda za određivanje sadržaja metala u realnim uzorcima, Doktorska disertacija, Univerzitet u Nišu, Srbija. [Optimization, validation, and application of the ICP-OES method for the determination of metal content in real samples. PhD Thesis, University of Niš, Serbia].

Wachira FN, Waugh R, Hackett CA, Powell W (1995). Detection of phenotypic diversity in tea (Camellia sinensis) using RAPD markers. Genome, 38:201-210.

Wahyuni Y, Ballester A, Sudarmonowati E, Bino RJ, Bovy AG (2013). Secondary metabolites of Capsicum species and their importance in the human diet. Journal of Natural Products 76(4):783-793.

Wall MM, Waddell CA, Bosland PW (2001). Variation in β-carotene and total carotenoid content in fruits of Capsicum. Horticultural Science 36:746-749.

Xu F, Li L, Huang X, Cheng H, Wang Y, Cheng S (2010). Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the leaves and stems of Premna microphylla. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4(23):2544-2550.

Zhigila D, Andrawus A, Alanamu AR, Opeyemi SK, Felix AO (2014). Fruit morphology as taxonomic features in five varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae. Journal of Botany 40868:1-6.

Zou X, Hou X, Dai X, Ma Y, Zhou QLiX, Zhang Z, Liu R, Chen W (2004). Principal component analysis and numeric taxonomy of the local varieties in Capsicum genus. Journal of Hunan Agricultural University 30(3):243-246.




How to Cite

MLADENOVIĆ, J., PAVLOVIĆ, N., MARJANOVIĆ, M., TOMIĆ, D., GRUBIŠIĆ, M., ZORNIĆ, V. G., & ZDRAVKOVIĆ, J. (2024). Breeding potential of morphological and phytochemical characteristics of landraces and autochthone varieties of Capsicum annuum L. in Republic of Serbia. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 52(1), 13435.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha52113435

Most read articles by the same author(s)