Effects of exogenous brassinolide and AM fungi on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant enzyme system of Leymus chinensis under salt and alkali stress


  • Zhanwu GAO Baicheng Normal University, Tourism and Geographical Science Institute, Baicheng, 137000 (CN)
  • Jing LIU Agricultural Technology Extension Station of Dongliao County, Dongliao 136600 (CN)
  • Qian LI Baicheng Normal University, Tourism and Geographical Science Institute, Baicheng, 137000 (CN)
  • Jinyu LIU Baicheng Normal University, Tourism and Geographical Science Institute, Baicheng, 137000 (CN)
  • Mengyuan BAI Baicheng Normal University, Tourism and Geographical Science Institute, Baicheng, 137000 (CN)
  • Xinning LI Baicheng Normal University, Tourism and Geographical Science Institute, Baicheng, 137000 (CN)
  • Qiang ZHU Northeast Normal University, College of Life Sciences, Institute of Grassland Science, Changchun, 130024 (CN)
  • Yanhui CUI Baicheng Normal University, Tourism and Geographical Science Institute, Baicheng, 137000 (CN)
  • Adnan RASHEED Hunan Agricultural University, College of Agronomy, Changsha, 410128 (CN)




antioxidants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, brassinolide, fluorescence, Leymus chinensis


Salinity and alkali stresses are a major abiotic stress negatively affecting crop productivity around the globe. Therefore, it is mandatory to develop the effective measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of these stresses for ensuring sustainable crop productivity and food security. Therefore, a pot experiment determined the effects of brassinolide application, inoculation with AM fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) and their combined use on the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Leymus chinensis under saline-alkali stress (0, 150 mmol/L). The mechanism of the two to alleviate the saline-alkali stress of L. chinensis was explored. The physiological and biochemical indexes of Leymus chinensis were significantly affected under saline-alkali stress (150 mmol/L). Inoculation of AM fungi and application of brassinolide effectively increased the biomass accumulation in the upper part (∼ 25-40%) and root (15-35%) system of L. chinensis under saline-alkali stress. Further AMF also improved   photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b), photosynthetic rate (Pn), Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomata conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), chlorophyll fluorescence antioxidant enzymes (SOD: superoxide dismutase. CAT: catalase APX: ascorbate peroxidase, GR: Glutathione reductase) activity, and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA: ∼ 40-50%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2: ∼ 30-40%) accumulation. Therefore, under saline-alkali stress conditions, the combination of brassinolide and AM fungi proved better to mitigate their toxic effects. 


Aouz A, Khan I, Chattha MB, Ahmad S, Ali M, Ali I, Ali A, Alqahtani FM, Hashem M, Albishi TS, Qari SH (2023). Silicon induces heat and salinity tolerance in wheat by increasing antioxidant activities, photosynthetic activity, nutrient homeostasis, and osmo-protectant synthesis. Plants 12:2606. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142606

Cao B, Jiang H, Lu Y, Liu L, Wang M (2021). Research progress on the symbiotic effects of tobacco and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [J]. Chinese Soil and Fertilizer 58:327-338.

Cao Y, Wu X, Zhukova A, Tang Z, Wang Y, Li Z, Yang Y (2020). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species and abundance exhibit different effects on saline-alkaline tolerance in Leymus chinensis. Journal of Plant Interactions 15. https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2020.1802524

Chattha MU, Hassan MU, Khan I, Nawaz M, Shah AN, Sattar A, Hashem M, Alamri S, Aslam MT, Alhaithloul HA, Hassan MU (2022). Hydrogen peroxide priming alleviates salinity induced toxic effect in maize by improving antioxidant defense system, ionic homeostasis, photosynthetic efficiency and hormonal crosstalk. Molecular Biology Reports 49:5611-5624. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07535-6

Gao X, Liu Y, Liu C, Guo C, Zhang Y, Ma C, Duan X (2023). Individual and combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phytohormones on the growth and physio-biochemical characteristics of tea cutting seedlings. Frontiers in Plant Science 14:1140267. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2023.1140267

Ghoname AA, AbdelMotlb NA, Abdel-Al FS, Abu El-Azm NA, Abd Elhady SA, Merah O, Abdelhamid MT (2022). Brassinosteroids or proline can alleviate yield inhibition under salt stress via modulating physio-biochemical activities and antioxidant systems in snap bean. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2022.2151518

Hasanuzzaman M, Bhuyan MB, Zulfiqar F, Raza A, Mohsin SM, Mahmud JA, Fujita M, Fotopoulos, V (2020). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense in plants under abiotic stress: Revisiting the crucial role of a universal defense regulator. Antioxidants 9:681. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080681

Hassan M, Aamer M, Umer CM, Haiying T, Shahzad B, Barbanti L, Nawaz M, Rasheed A, Afzal A, Liu Y, Guoqin H (2020). The critical role of zinc in plants facing the drought stress. Agriculture 10:396. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10090396

Hassan MU, Nawaz M, Shah AN, Raza A, Barbanti L, Skalicky M, Hashem M, Brestic M, Pandey S, Alamri S, Mostafa YS (2023). Trehalose: a key player in plant growth regulation and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 42:4935-4957. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-022-10851-7

Hussain S, Shaukat M, Ashraf M, Zhu C, Jin Q, Zhang J (2019). Salinity stress in arid and semi-arid climates: Effects and management in field crops. Journal of Climate Change and Agriculture 13:197-222.

Jiao D, Zhao Z (2019). Effects of Saline-alkali stress on plant morphology, physiology and biochemistry and plant response progress. Iiang-Su Agricultural Sciences 47(20):1-4.

Khan I, Ali SM, Chattha MU, Barbanti L, Calone R, Mahmood A, Albishi TS, Hassan MU, Qari SH (2023a). Neem and castor oil–coated urea mitigates salinity effects in wheat by improving physiological responses and plant homeostasis. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-023-01311-6

Khan I, Mahmood S, Chattha MU, Chattha MB, Ahmad S, Awan MI, Alqahtani FM, Hashem M, Alhaithloul HAS, Qari SH, Mahmood F (2023b). Organic amendments improved the productivity and bio-fortification of fine rice by improving physiological responses and nutrient homeostasis under salinity stress. Plants 12(8):644. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081644

Liao D, Liu J, Liu J, Yang X, Chen X, Gu M, Chen A (2016). Research progress of Plant hormone response and regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Journal of Nutrition and Fertilizer Science 22:1679-1689.

Liu M, Wang Z, Yang F, Li J, Liang Z (2021). Progress of application of biochar in saline-alkali soil improvement. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 21:131-142.

Manghwar H, Hussain A, Ali Q, Liu F (2022). Brassinosteroids (BRs) role in plant development and coping with different stresses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23:1012. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031012

Nawaz M, Hassan MU, Chattha MU, Mahmood A, Shah AN, Hashem M, Alamri S, Batool M, Rasheed A, Thabit MA, Alhaithloul HA (2022). Trehalose: A promising osmo-protectant against salinity stress—physiological and molecular mechanisms and future prospective. Molecular Biology Reports 49:11255-11271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07681-x

Ntoniou C, Hatzimichail X, Enofontos P, Avlou,janj P, Anagiotou C, Hristou A, Otopoulos V (2017). Melatonin systemically ameliorates drought stress-induced damage in Medicago sativa plants by modulating nitro-oxidative homeostasis and proline metabolism. Journal of Pineal Research 62:101-111. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12401

Orcar-castell P, Albert T, Yystjarviesa A, Thertonjon V, Andertol CF, Lexasjaume P, Fuend M, Oreno J, Rankenberg C, Erry B (2014). Linking leaves a fluorescence to Analysis for remote sensing applications: mechanisms and challenges. Journal of Experimental Botany 65:4065-4095.

Papalia T,Panuccio MR,Sidari M Muscolo A (2018). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymatic systems in plants: role and methods. Advances in Plant Ecophysiology Techniques 55:177-193. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru191

Phillips J, Ayman D (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 55:158-161.

Rasheed A, Li H, Nawaz M, Mahmood A, Hassan MU, Shah AN, … Wu Z (2022a). Molecular tools, potential frontiers for enhancing salinity tolerance in rice: A critical review and future prospective. Frontiers in Plant Science 13:966749. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.966749

Rasheed A, Raza A, Jie H, Mahmood A, Ma Y, Zhao L, … Jie Y (2022b). Molecular tools and their applications in developing salt-tolerant soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars. Bioengineering 9(10):495. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9100495

Seleiman MF, Aslam MT, Alhammad BA, Hassan MU, Maqbool R, Chattha MU, Khan I, Gitari HI, Uslu OS, Rana R (2022). Salinity stress in wheat: Effects, mechanisms and management strategies. Phyton 91:667. https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2022.017365

Shaheen S, Baber M, Aslam S, Aslam S, Shaheen M, Waheed R, Seo H, Azhar MT (2023). Effect of Nacl on morphophysiological and biochemical responses in Gossypium hirsutum L. Agronomy 13:1012. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13041012

Shao J, Tang W, Huang K, Ding C, Wang H, Zhang W, Li R, Aamer M, Hassan MU, Elnour RO, Hashem M (2023). How does zinc improve salinity tolerance? Mechanisms and future prospects. Plants 12:3207. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12183207

Song J, Li J, Liu M, Niu J, Wang R, Lv J, Zong X, Wang S (2015). Effects of brassinosteroids on osmotic regulation and antioxidant enzymes of Leymus chinensis under drought stress. Acta Prataculturae Sinica 24:93-102.

Tang H, Hassan MU, Feng L, Nawaz M, Shah AN, Qari SH, Liu Y, Miao J (2022). The critical role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve drought tolerance and nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Frontiers in Plant Science 13:919166. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.919166

Wang Y, Ren Y, Lin X, Tian D, Yang B, He J (2017). Effects of different concentrations of H2O2 on old seed vigor and seedling physiological characteristics of rice. Journal of Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences 45:49-53.

Yang Y, Ao Y, Zhenxin L, Hukova A, Yang S, Wang J, Tang Z, Cao Y, Zhang Y, Wang D (2020). Interactive effects of exogenous melatonin and Rhizophagus intraradices on saline-alkaline stress tolerance in Leymus. Mycorrhiza 30:357-371. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-020-00942-2

Yaqoob U, Jan N, Raman PV, Siddique KH, John R (2022). Crosstalk between brassinosteroid signaling, ROS signaling and phenylpropanoid pathway during abiotic stress in plants: Does it exist? Plant Stress 4:100075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stress.2022.100075

Yu D, Zheng X, Mu C, Wang J (2022). Irrigation and nitrogen application promote population density through altered bud bank size and components in Leymus chinensis. Agronomy 12:1436. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061436



How to Cite

GAO, Z., LIU, J., LI, Q., LIU, J., BAI, M., LI, X., ZHU, Q., CUI, Y., & RASHEED, A. (2023). Effects of exogenous brassinolide and AM fungi on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant enzyme system of Leymus chinensis under salt and alkali stress. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 51(4), 13378. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha51413378



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha51413378

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>