Modulating the antioxidant defense systems and nutrients content by proline for higher yielding of wheat under water deficit


  • Maha L. HADID King Faisal University, College of Agricultural and Food Science, Agribusiness and Consumer Science Department, Al-Ahsa 31982 (SA)
  • Khaled M.A. RAMADAN King Faisal University, Central Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Al-Ahsa 31982; Ain Shams University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cairo 11241 (SA)
  • Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI King Faisal University, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Agricultural Biotechnology Department, P.O. Box 420, Al-Ahsa 31982; Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biochemistry Department, Gamma St, Giza 12613 (SA)
  • Amany A. RAMADAN National Research Centre, Agricultural and Research Institute, Botany Department, P.O. Box 12622–Dokki, El–Behos St. Dokki, Cairo (EG)
  • Ibrahim M. EL-METWALLY National Research Centre, Agricultural and Research Institute, Botany Department, P.O. Box 12622–Dokki, El–Behos St. Dokki, Cairo (EG)
  • Tarek A. SHALABY King Faisal University, College of Agricultural and Food Science, Arid Land Agriculture Department, Al-Ahsa 31982; Kafrelsheikh University, Faculty of Agriculture, Horticulture Department, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516 (SA)
  • Eslam S.A. BENDARY Ain Shams University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cairo (EG)
  • Khairiah MUBARAK ALWUTAYD Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, College of Science Department of Biology, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11671 (SA)
  • Hani S. SAUDY Ain Shams University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agronomy Department, P.O. Box 68–Hadayek Shoubra 11241, Cairo (EG)



cereal crops, deficit water, osmo-protectants, physiological defenders, wheat yield potential


Numerous plant metabolites, especially amino acids, are accumulated as a result of stress. These amino acids are crucial for plant metabolism and development and have historically been viewed as the building blocks of proteins. Several studies suggested that there is a link between proline buildup and exposure plants to stress. Proline performs important functions under stress in addition to be a great osmolyte, antioxidant enzyme, acts as an antioxidant defense and signaling molecules. Two field trials were during two successive winter seasons (2020/2021 and 2021/2022). The effects of proline foliar application (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L−1) and irrigation water levels (irrigation by 100, 80 and 60% of crop water requirements, CWR, CWR100, CWR80 and CWR60, respectively) on plant pigments, antioxidants activity, yield traits and nutrient contents of wheat were assessed. The experiment was designed in a split-plot involving 4 replicates. Drought stress (CWR80 and CWR60) led to reductions in photosynthetic pigments, and yield components. Under severe water stress (CWR60), proline 200 and 300 mg L−1 recorded the highest values of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total pigments. Application of proline 300 mg L−1 was the potent practice for enhancing the antioxidant activity% (DPPH radical scavenging) and phenols content under CWR100 and CWR80. Indole acetic acid (IAA) possessed the maximum values with proline 200 mg L−1 under all irrigation patterns. Under severe deficit water (CWR60), without proline spraying (for super oxide dismutase), 200, 300 or 400 mg L−1 proline (for peroxidase) and 200 or 400 mg L−1 proline (for polyphenol oxidase) recorded the highest values. Spraying proline 300 mg L−1 achieved the highest values of grain number spike−1, weight of 1000 grains and grain yield ha−1 under different irrigation regimes. In conclusion, proline is considered a good mitigator for drought stress, due to it increased wheat plant tolerance to water deficiency throughout improving plant physiology and consequently yields quantity and quality. The most efficient concentrations of proline for coping the adverse impact of drought were 200 and 300 mg L−1.


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How to Cite

HADID, M. L., RAMADAN, K. M., EL-BELTAGI, H. S., RAMADAN, A. A., EL-METWALLY, I. M., SHALABY, T. A., BENDARY, E. S., MUBARAK ALWUTAYD, K., & SAUDY, H. S. (2023). Modulating the antioxidant defense systems and nutrients content by proline for higher yielding of wheat under water deficit. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 51(3), 13291.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha51313291

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