Variations in seed oil and chemical composition among the safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
Keywords:carotene, oil quality, phenolic compounds, seed, tocopherol
Seeds of oil crops are both important sources of edible oils and bioactive compounds. The present study was carried out to determine variations in oil content, bioactive compounds (total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, xanthophyll and tocopherol) and fatty acid compositions in the seeds of 20 safflower genotypes. Relationships among these parameters were also examined with correlation and principal coordinate analysis. Significant differences for seed oil content and bioactive compounds were detected among the safflower genotypes. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the genotypes ranged from 5.10-14.55 mg g-1 and from 4.60-7.25 mg g-1, respectively. Total carotenoid and xanthophyll contents of seeds ranged from 3.75-19.17 mg g-1 and from 5.25-20.13 mg g-1, respectively. Total tocopherol content of safflower genotypes was between 43.56-76.42 mg 100 g-1. Oil content of the genotypes were between 24.07-34.53% with average value of 29.22%. Fatty acid analysis revealed that 16 genotypes were linoleic and 4 were oleic type and they had generally high palmitic acid content ranging from 5.6-12.89%. Total unsaturated/total saturated fatty acids ratios were between 4.55-11.59, and ‘Olas’ and ‘Linas’ had the highest values. Correlation analysis revealed 45 correlations, four were positively and 7 were negatively correlated with each other. Principal coordinate analysis showed that some genotypes were clustered separately based on their seed contents. Our results also confirmed that seed oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed chemical compositions among the safflower genotypes varied significantly and could be exploited for higher oil yield and oil quality.
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