Changes on mutant pot chrysanthemums (Dendranthema × grandiflora Tzelev.)
Keywords:breeding, gamma irradiation, in vitro, mutation frequency, variation
Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema x grandiflora Tzvelev) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world that has the richest mutant varieties with numerous colors. The objective of this study is to determine the effective mutagen dose (EMD50) for creating variations by gamma irradiation. It is aimed to get a mutagenesis protocol that could develop new mutants in pot chrysanthemums. To determine the EMD50, rooted cuttings of brownish-red color ‘Brandevil’ variety were irradiated by gamma radiation at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gray (Gy) doses. According to the shoot lengths, EMD50 was calculated as 27 Gy. The mutation frequency was calculated as 4.8%. Some changes were observed for flower numbers per plant, plant heights and widths, shapes and colors of both flowers and leaves. The color changes varied from brownish-red to yellow and orange. Two different colors appeared in the same pot at some genotypes as well as form changes of flowers. The similarity of the mutants was determined by the hierarchical cluster dendrogram involving five groups. Various colors were obtained for leaves and flowers. Remarkable mutations of the selected mutants were multiplied by tissue culture.
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