Agro-mophological characterization, adaptational behaviour and flower abnormalities of Lilium L. cultivars in addition to a flower with stochastic flower formula


  • Aysun CAVUSOGLU Kocaeli University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 41285, Kocaeli; Kocaeli University, Institue of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Horticultural Sciences, 41001, Kocaeli (TR)



adaptation, cultivar, flower life, flower abnormality, Lilium L., morphology, stochasticity


This experiment was undertaken to determine the adaptation of Lilium L. cultivars to North-Western part of Türkiye and to define morphologic plant growth characteristics at aboveground part, including flower life and flower abnormalities. The bulbs of the three Lilium L. cultivars, ‘Profundo’, ‘Valverde’, and ‘Vonq’, were sown to perlite in pots in June, 2021, and evaluated for emergence and flowering rates, stem and plant height, stem and flower diameter, leaf and flower number, flower abnormality rates, flower fragrance degree and flower life in 2022, after one year adaptation without removing the previous sown bulbs. As the results of the cultivars differences these were determined that, at the adaptive year; the emergence rates varied between 60.42-89.58%, flowering rates changed between 43.75-87.50%, stem heights changed between 40.63-48.25 cm, plant heights changed between 52.50-59.75 cm and these data showed statistically importance. In addition to the data in the adaptive year; stem diameters, leaf numbers, flower numbers flower fragrance degree and flower longevities also showed statistical importance between cultivars. The flower abnormality rates were found between 8.3-25% in cultivars although no statistical results. Interestingly a striking, stochastic case also was observed from a flower with 8 tepals, 8 stamen and 4 lobed stigma at ‘Valverde’ contrary to well-known flower formula. It has been concluded that ‘Profundo’ has more remarkable result in terms of longevity of flower compared to the other two varieties while ‘Valverde’ and ‘Vonq’ shared the same group with some precedence in most of the agro-morphologic characteristics e.g. plant height, stem height and stem diameter. Lilium L. ‘Vonq’ showed that the highest adaptive capacity among the cultivars with the highest emergence rate (89.58) in all sowed bulbs and flowering rate (87.50) in all emerged bulbs under the study conditions in the open-air.


Abdel-Rahman TFM (2021). Evaluation of the efficiency of some bio-fertilizers and different silicon sources for controlling bulb rot of Lilium spp. in Egypt. Journal of the Advances in Agricultural Researches 26(4):454-465.

Anonymous (2010). UPOV-International union for the protection of new varieties of plants, protocol code: LILIU, Lilium L. TG/59/7, Geneva pp 1-34. Retrieved 2022 September, 12 from:

Anonymous (2012). CPVO-Community Plant Variety Office, Protocol Code: Lilium L., CPVO-TP/059/3, France pp 1-22. Retrieved 2022 September, 12 from:

Anonymous (2022). VWS Export-Import of Flowerbulbs B.V., The Netherlands. Retrieved 2022 September, 12 from:

Assis AMD, Unemoto LK, Faria RTD, Destro D, Takahashi LSA, Roberto SR, …Tombolato AFC (2011). Adaptation of anthurium cultivars as cut flowers in a subtropical area. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 46:161-166.

Baliyan SP, Rao MS (2013). Evaluation of tomato varieties for pest and disease adaptation and productivity in Botswana. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 2(3):20-29.

Bany Hani M, Othman YA, Al-Ajlouni MG, A’saf TS (2022). Deep planting improved stem root growth, flower yield and quality of Lilium cultivars. Horticultura Brasileira 40:143-150.

Besson S, Dumais J (2014). Stochasticity in the symmetric division of plant cells: when the exceptions are the rule. Frontiers in Plant Science 5:538

Bhandari NS, Srivastava R, Kumar S (2016). Effect of growing substrates on performance of Lilium (Lilium longiflorum L.) cv. Bach. The Bioscan 11(2):1291-1293.

Bu L, Chen X, Li S, Liu J, Zhu L, Luo S, …Zhao Y (2015). The effect of adapting cultivars on the water use efficiency of dryland maize (Zea mays L.) in Northwestern China. Agricultural Water Management 148:1-9.

Cai X, Starman T, Niu G, Hall C, Lombardini L (2012). Response of selected garden roses to drought stress. HortScience 47(8):1050-1055.

Campoy JA, Ruiz D, Allderman L, Cook N, Egea J (2012). The fulfilment of chilling requirements and the adaptation of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) in warm winter climates: an approach in Murcia (Spain) and the Western Cape (South Africa). European Journal of Agronomy 37(1):43-55.

Coen ES, Meyerowitz EM (1991). The war of the whorls: genetic interactions controlling flower development. Nature 353:31-37.

Dhiman MR, Sharma P, Bhargava B (2021). Lilium: Conservation, Characterization, and Evaluation. In: Datta SK, Gupta YC (Eds). Floriculture and ornamental plants handbooks of crop diversity: conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Springer Press, Singapore pp 81-116.

Fatmi U, Singh D, Bharti S (2018). Growth and flowering of Asiatic Lily cv. Pollyanna as influenced by different growing environments. Plant Archives 18(1):760-762.

Grassotti A, Gimelli F (2011). Bulb and cut flower production in the genus Lilium: current status and the future. Acta Horticulturae 900:21-35.

Hoagland DR (1920). Optimum nutrient solutions for plants. Science 52:562-564.

Holkar PS, Patil BC, Shirgur M, Narasareddy G, Patil RT, Sandhyarani N., … Sachinkumar N (2022). Assessment of genetic variability among lilium (Lilium spp.) genotypes for productivity and quality traits. The Pharma Innovation 11(3):549-552.

Huang R, Huang T, Irish VF (2021). Do epigenetic timers control petal development?. Frontiers in Plant Science 12:709360.

Hwang SM, Kwon TR, Doh ES, Park MH (2010). Growth and physiological adaptations of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in response to water scarcity in soil. Journal of Bio-Environment Control 19(4):266-274.

Hyles J, Bloomfield MT, Hunt JR, Trethowan RM, Trevaskis B (2020). Phenology and related traits for wheat adaptation. Heredity 125(6):417-430.

Irish V (2017). The ABC model of floral development. Current Biology 27:R887-R890.

Jiménez S, Plaza BM, Segura ML, Contreras JI, Lao MT (2012). Peat substrate reuse in Lilium “Helvatia” crop, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43:243-250.

Kim SH, Niedziela CE Jr, Nelson PV, De Hertogh AA, Swallow WH, Mingis NC (2007). Growth and development of Lilium longiflorum ‘Nellie White’ during bulb production under controlled environments: II. Effects of shifting day/night temperature regimes on scale bulblets. Scientia Horticulturae 112(1):95-98.

Liang H, Mahadevan L (2011). Growth, geometry, and mechanics of a blooming lily. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(14):5516-5521.

Liu C, Wang Y, Liu D, Yang T, Tang Z (2022). Analysis of research status and development trend of nanotoxicology of Liliaceae medicinal plants. BioMed Research International 2022:9777817.

Liu J, Zhonglian MA, Shi R, Cheng L, Wang J, Wang S (2021). Effects of nine kinds of household vase solutions on fresh-keeping effect of Lilium cut flowers. Asian Agricultural Research 13(2):35-40.

Markou M, Moraiti CA, Stylianou A, Papadavid G (2020). Addressing climate change impacts on agriculture: adaptation measures for six crops in Cyprus. Atmosphere 11(5):483.

Nongdhar I, Singh D, Fatmi U (2019). Response of growing media on growth and flower quality of Asiatic Lilium cv. Ercalano in shade net under Prayagraj condition. Plant Archives 19(2):540-542.

Parker AK, García de Cortázar-Atauri IG, Trought MC, Destrac A, Agnew R, Sturman A, van Leeuwen C (2020). Adaptation to climate change by determining grapevine cultivar differences using temperature-based phenology models. Oeno One 54(4):955-974.

Roeder AH (2018). Use it or average it: stochasticity in plant development. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 41:8-15.

Simpson MG (2010). Diversity and classification of flowering plants: Amborellales, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales, Magnoliids, Ceratophyllales, and Monocots. In: Simpson MG (Ed). Plant Systematics (Second Edition). Academic Press, San Diego pp 181-274.

Studnicki M, Lenartowicz T, Noras K, Wójcik-Gront E, Wyszyński Z (2019). Assessment of stability and adaptation patterns of white sugar yield from sugar beet cultivars in temperate climate environments. Agronomy 9(7):405.

Tang N, Jia R, Yin J, Wang Y, Tang D (2021). Effects of cold treatments on seedling emergence and growth of Lilium davidii var. unicolor bulblets. HortScience 56(9):1119-1124.

Tigga A, Fatmi U (2021). Effect of plant spacing and nitrogen schedule on growth and quality of Asiatic lily (Lilium× asiatica) cv. Litouwen under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions of Prayagraj. The Pharma Innovation 10(12):1180-1184.

van Tuyl JM, van Dijken A, Chi HS, Lim KB, Villemoes S, van Kronenburg BCE (2000). Breakthroughs in interspecific hybridization of lily. Acta Horticulturae 508:83-88.

Wang YT, Roberts AN (1983). Influence of air and soil temperatures on the growth and development of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. during different growth phases. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 108(5):810-815.

Wu X, Hou J, Zhang Z, Chen L, Ni H, Qian Y, …Wu W (2022). In-depth exploration and comparison of chemical constituents from two Lilium species through offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with multimode acquisition of high-resolution mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1670:462980.

Zhou J, An R, Huang X (2021). Genus Lilium: A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 270:113852.

Zulfiqar F, Younis A, Riaz A, Mansoor F, Hameed M, Akram NA, Abideen Z (2020). Morpho-anatomical adaptations of two Tagetes erecta L. cultivars with contrasting response to drought stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany 52(3):801-810.



How to Cite

CAVUSOGLU, A. (2023). Agro-mophological characterization, adaptational behaviour and flower abnormalities of Lilium L. cultivars in addition to a flower with stochastic flower formula. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 51(4), 12949.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha51412949