The combined use of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus mitigate the adverse effects of drought stress on Matthiola incana


  • Alireza SHARIFIAN Department of Horticulture, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak (IR)
  • Abbas MIRZAKHANI Islamic Azad University, Department of Horticulture Science, Arak Branch, Arak; Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Markazi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Arak (IR)
  • Shahab KHAGHANI Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak (IR)
  • Seyed F.F. KAKHAKI Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Khrasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad (IR)



antioxidant, membrane stability, oxidative stress, relative water content, silica


Effects of the application of potassium silicate (PS) and an arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) (Glomus mosseae) were investigated on alleviating the impacts of drought stress on Matthiola incana in a split-split-plot experiment in two consecutive years. The main plot was assigned to drought stress at three levels of irrigation (25%, 50%, 70%, of field capacity) comparing with control (100% of field capacity) and the sub-plots were assigned to AMF at two levels (0 and 200 g of fungi in pots) and sub-sub plots were assigned to potassium silicate (PS) at three levels (0, 200, and 400 ppm). The application of PS with fungus increased colonization percentage regardless of the drought stress level. Regarding the interaction of drought stress and PS, it was revealed that the application of 400 and 200 ppm of PS elevated the contents of chlorophylls a, b, and total at all drought stress levels. Also, deficit irrigation versus the normal irrigation increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content both in non-AMF and AMF-containing treatments. The lowest catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) contents were obtained from the treatment of 400 ppm of PS, while the highest were related to the treatment of 0 ppm of PS. Proline content was reduced by the application of 200 g of AMF and 400 ppm of PS at moderate and severe (25% FC) drought stress levels. In general, at moderate and severe drought stress levels, some physiological traits were improved by the foliar application of 400 ppm PS and Glomus mosseae inoculation.


Metrics Loading ...


Abbasdokht H, Safdari F (2016). Relationship between board inoculation of Rhizobium japonica and mycorrhizal fungus with root colonization and yield quantitative and qualitative of the soybean plant (Glycine max L) in different levels of potassium. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 26(3):57-70.

Abdalla MM, El-Khoshiban NH (2007). The influence of water stress on growth, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments, some metabolic and hormonal contents of two Triticum aestivum cultivars. Journal of Apply Science Research 3:2062-2074.

Al-Karaki GN, McMichael B, Zak J (2004). Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza 14:263-269.

Alqarawi AA, Abd Allah EF, Hashem A (2014). Alleviation of salt-induced adverse impact via mycorrhizal fungi in Ephedra aphylla Forssk. Journal of Plant Interactions 9(1):802-810.

Amiri Forotaghe Z, Souri MK, Ghanbari Jahromi M, Mohammadi Torkashvand A (2021). Influence of humic acid application on onion growth characteristics under water deficit conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition 45(7):1030-1040.

Asefpour Vakilian K (2020). Machine learning improves our knowledge about miRNA functions towards plant abiotic stresses. Scientific Reports 10:3041.

Ashraf M, Akram NA, Al-Qurainy F, Foolad MR (2011). Drought tolerance: roles of organic osmolytes, growth regulators, and mineral nutrients. Advances in Agronomy 111:249-296.

Ashraf M, Ali Q (2008). Relative membrane permeability and activities of some antioxidant enzymes as the key determinants of salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany 63:266-273.

Bajji M, Kinet J, Lutts S (2002). The use of the electrolyte leakage method for assessing cell membrane stability as a water stress tolerance test in durum wheat. Plant Growth Regulation 36:61-70.

Balakhnina T, Borkowska A (2013). Effects of silicon on plant resistance to environmental stresses. International Agrophysics 27(2).

Basu S, Ramegowda V, Kumar A, Pereira A (2016). Plant adaptation to drought stress. F1000Research 5.

Bates LS, Walderen RD, Taere ID (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39:205-702.

Bearden BN (2001). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soil structure and soil water characteristics of vertisols. Plant and Soil 229:245-258.

Begum NC, Qin C, Ahanger MA, Raza S, Khan MI, Ashraf M, Ahmed N, Zhang LX (2019). Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant growth regulation: Implications in abiotic stress tolerance. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:1068.

Bhattacharjee S, Mukherjee AK (2002). Salt stress-induced cytosolute accumulation, antioxidant response and membrane deterioration in three rice cultivars during early germination. Seed Science and Technology 30:279-287.

Bolandnazar S, Aliasgarzad N, Neishabury MR Chaparzadeh N (2007). Mycorrhizal colonization improves onion (Allium cepa L.) yield and water use efficiency under water deficit condition. Scientia Horticulturae 114:11-15.

Bowles TM, Barrios-Masias FH, Carlisle EA, Cavagnaro TR, Jackson LE (2016). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on tomato yield, nutrient uptake, water relations, and soil carbon dynamics under deficit irrigation in field conditions. Science of the Total Environment 56:1223-1234. https://doi.org10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.178

Bucher M (2007). Functional biology of plant phosphate uptake at root and mycorrhiza interfaces. New Phytologist 173:11-26.

Chen W, Yao X, Cai K, Chen J (2011). Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption. Biological Trace Element Research 142(1):67-76.

Crusciol CC, Pulz AL, Lemos LB, Soratto RP, Lima GPP (2009). Effects of silicon and drought stress on tuber yield and leaf biochemical characteristics in potato. Crop Science 49:949-954.

Das D, Basar NU, Ullah H, Salin KR, Datta A (2021). Interactive effect of silicon and mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, yield and water productivity of rice under water-deficit stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition.

Dere Ş, Güneş T, Sivaci R (1998). Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll-A, B and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Turkish Journal of Botany 22(1):13-18.

Ebrahimi M, Souri MK, Mousavi A, Sahebani N (2021). Biochar and vermicompost improve growth and physiological traits of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under deficit irrigation. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 8(1):1-14.

Elmi M (2009). A brief overview of the global flower market. Business Think Tank, Iran Trade Development Organization.

Epstein E (1999). Silicon. Annual Review of Plant Biology 50:641.

Eraslan F, Inal A, Gunes A, Apalsan M (2007). Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on the growth, antioxidant activity and physiology of carrot plants subjected to combined salinity and boron toxicity. Scientia Horticulturae 113:120-128.

Etesami H, Jeong BR (2018). Silicon (Si): Review and future prospects on the action mechanisms in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 147:881-896.

Farzi R, Golami M (2018). The effect of different mulch types on some photosynthesis and water relation parameters of olive cultivar ‘Manzanilla’ under water stress conditions. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 8(3).

Fazeli Kakhaki SF, Moayedi AA (2018). Stress in plants: from physiology to genome. SokhanGostar Publications, pp 473.

Fitzsimons MS, Miller M (2010). The importance of soil microorganisms for maintaining diverse plant communities in tallgrass prairie. American Journal of Botany 97(12):1937-1943.

Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48:909-930.

Gong HJ, Chen KM, Chen GC, Wang SM, Zhang CL (2003). Effects of silicon on growth of wheat under drought. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26(5):1055-1063.

Gunes A, Pilbeam DJ, Inal A, Coban S (2008). Influence of silicon on sunflower cultivars under drought stress, I: Growth, antioxidant mechanisms, and lipid peroxidation. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39(13-14):1885-1903.

Hajiboland R, Cheraghvareh L, Poschenrieder C (2017). Improvement of drought tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana rustica L.) plants by silicon. Journal of Plant Nutrition 40:1661-1676.

Hodson MJ, White PJ, Mead A, Broadley MR (2005). Phylogenetic variation in the silicon composition of plants. Annals of Botany 96:1027-1046.

Karagiannidis N, Bletsos F, Stavropoulos N (2002). Effect of Verticillium, wilt (Verticillium dahliae, Kleb.), and mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae) on root colonization, growth, and nutrient uptake in tomato and eggplant seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae 94:145-156.

Katsuhara M, Otsuka T, Ezaki B (2005). Salt stress-induced lipid peroxidation is reduced by glutathione S-transferase, but this reduction of lipid peroxides is not enough for a recovery of root growth in Arabidogsis. Plant Sciences 169(2):369-373.

Lata C, Jha S, Sreenivasulu N, Prasad M (2011). Differential antioxidative responses to dehydration-induced oxidative stress in the core set of foxtail millet cultivars. Protoplasma 248:817-828.

Latef AAHA, Hashem A, Rasool S, Abd_Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, Egamberdieva D, ... Ahmad P (2016). Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and abiotic stress in plants: a review. Journal of Plant Biology 59(5):407-426.

Liang Y, Sun W, Zhu Y, Christie P (2007). Mechanisms of Silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher Plants- a review. Environmental Pollution 147:422-428.

Liang YC, Chen Q, Liu WHZ, Ding RX (2003). Exogenous silicon (Si) increases antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation in roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgar L.). Journal of Plant Physiology 160:1157-1164.

Liang YC, Sun CWYC, Romheld V (2005). Effects of foliar- and root applied silicon on the enhancement of induced resistance to powdery mildew in cucumis sativus. Journal of Plant Pathology 54:678-685.

Liu P, Yin L N, Deng X P, Wang S W, Tanaka K, Zhang SQ (2014). Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L. Journal of Experimental Botany 65:4747-4756.

Lux A, Luxová M, Hattori T, Inanaga S, Sugimoto Y (2002). Silicification in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars with different drought tolerance. Physiologia Plantarum 115:87-92.

Ma JF, Yamaji N (2006). Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends in Plant Science 11:392-397.

Mathur S, Sharma MP, Jajoo A (2018). Improved photosynthetic efficacy of maize (Zea mays) plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under high temperature stress. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 180:149-154.

Matthews R, Azam-Alisn B, Peacock JM (1990). Response of four sorghum lines to midseason drought: II. Leaf characteristics. Field Crops Research 25:297-308.

Mc Gonigle TP, Miller MH, Evans DG, Fairchild GL, Swan JAA (1990). New method which gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi. New Phytologist 115:495-501.

Mehrgan B, Mousavifard P, Rezainejad A (2018). The effect of potassium silicate foliar application on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of Alternanthera repens L. under drought stress. Journal of Crop Improvement 20(1):299-314.

Meloni DA, Oliva MA, Martinez CA, Cambraia J (2003). Photosynthesis and activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cotton under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49(1):69-76.

Ming, DF, Pei ZF, Naeem MS, Gong HJ, Zhou WJ (2012). Silicon alleviates PEG‐induced water‐deficit stress in upland rice seedlings by enhancing osmotic adjustment. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 198(1):14-26.

Miransari M (2010). Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to plant growth under different types of soil stresses. Review article. Plant Biology 12:563-569.

Mohammadkhani N, Heidari R (2007). Effects of water stress on respiration, photosynthetic pigments and water content in tow Maize cultivar. Pakistan Journal Biological Science 10:4022-4028.

Moradtalab N, Hajiboland R, Aliasgharzad N, Hartmann TE, Neumann G (2019). Silicon and the association with an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus clarus) mitigate the adverse effects of drought stress on strawberry. Agronomy 9:41.

Munns R (2002). Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell and Environment 25:239-250.

Nadian H (2011). Effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal coexistence on growth and phosphorus uptake by two different sorghum cultivars in root morphology. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology and Natural Resources 15:127-140.

Ouzounidou G, Giannakoula A, Ilias I, Zamanidis P (2016). Alleviation of drought and salinity stresses on growth, physiology, biochemistry, and quality of two Cucumis sativus L. cultivars by Si application. Brazilian Journal of Botany 39(2):531-539.

Porcel R, Aroca R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2012). Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 32(1):181-200.

Raghda’a Ali Al-Khafajy D, AL-Taey KA, AL-Mohammed MH (2020). The impact of water quality, bio fertilizers and selenium spraying on some vegetative and flowering growth parameters of Calendula officinalis L. under salinity stress. International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences 16:1175-1180.

Raghda’a Ali Al-Khafajy D, AL-Taey KA, AL-Mohammed MH (2020). The impact of water quality, bio fertilizers and selenium spraying on some vegetative and flowering growth parameters of Calendula officinalis L. under salinity stress. International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences 16:1175-1180.

Rastgoo L, Alemzadeh A (2011). Biochemical responses of gouan (Aeluropus littoralis) to heavy metals stress. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(4):375-383.

Rejaea F, Esmaeilzadeh A, Shamshiripoor M, Saberi M (2016). Investigation of different species of mycorrhizal fungi on increasing the herbal efficiency of heavy metal contaminated soils using two plants, corn and sunflower. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research 47(3):475-483.

Rizwan M, Ali S, Ibrahim M, Farid M, Adrees M, Bharwana SA, ... Abbas F (2015). Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(20):15416-15431.

Rozpądek P, Rąpałakozik M, Wêżowicz K, Grandin A, Karlsson S, Wazny R (2016). Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves the yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 107:264-272.

Ruiz-Llozno JM (2003). Arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis and alleviation of osmotic stress. New perspectives for molecular studies. Mycorrhiza 13:309-317.

Sairam RK, Saxena DC (2000). Oxidative stress and antioxidant in wheat genotypes: possible mechanism of water stress tolerance. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 184:55-61.

Saleh S, Liu G, Liu M, Ji Y, He H, Gruda N (2018). Effect of irrigation on growth, yield, and chemical composition of two green bean cultivars. Horticulturae 4(1):3.

Salehpour M, Ebadi A, Izadi M, Jamaati-e-Somarin S (2009). Evaluation of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer effects on relative water content, membrane stability index, chlorophyll and some other traits of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) under hydroponics conditions. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 3:103-109.

Singh R, Parihar P, Singh S, Mishra RK, Singh VP, Prasad SM (2017). Reactive oxygen species signaling and stomatal movement: Current updates and future perspectives. Redox Biology 11:213-218.

Smart RE, Bingham E (1974). Rapid estimates of relative water content. Plant Physiology 53:258-260.

Smith FA, Smith SE (2011). What is the significance of the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of many economically important crop plants? Plant Soil 348:63-79.

Srinivas ND, Rashmi K, Raghavarao K (1999). Extraction and purification of a plant peroxidase by aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with gel filtration. Process Biochemistry 35:43-48.

Sultana N, Ikeda T, Itoh R (1999). Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains. Environmental and Experimental Botany 42:211-220.

Turkan I, Melike B, Ozdemir F, Koca H (2005). Differential response of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the leaves of drought-tolerant P. acutifolius gray and drought-sensitive P. vulgaris L. subjected to polyethylene glycol mediated water stress. Plant Science 168:223-231.

Ullah H, Santiago-Arenas R, Ferdous Z, Attia A, Datta A (2019). Improving water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and radiation use efficiency in field crops under drought stress: A review. Advances in Agronomy 156:109-157.

Vaghar M, Ehsanzadeh P (2018). Comparative photosynthetic attributes of emmer and modern wheats in response to water and nitrogen supply. Photosynthetica 56(4):1224-1234.

Velikova V, Yordanov I, Edreva A (2000). Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants. Protective role of exogenous polyamins. Plant Science 151:59-66.

Voleti SR, Padmakumari AP, Raju VS, Mallikarjuna Babu S, Ranganathan S (2008) Effect of silicon solubilizers on silica transportation, induced pest and disease resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Protection 27:1398-1402.

Wang J, Possw A, Donovanw TJ, Shannonz MC, Leschw SM (2002). Biophysical properties and biomass production of elephant grass under saline conditions. Journal of Arid Environments 52:447-456.

Willis A, Rodrigues BF, Harris PJ (2013). The ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 32(1):1-20.

Wu QS, Xia RX (2006). Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment, and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 163(4):417-425.

Wu QS, Zou YN (2017). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and tolerance of drought stress in plants. In: Arbuscular mycorrhizas and stress tolerance of plants (pp. 25-41). Springer, Singapore.

Yin L, Wang S, Liu P, Wang W, Cao D, Deng X, Zhang S (2014). Silicon-mediated changes in polyamine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid are involved in silicon-induced drought resistance in Sorghum bicolor L. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 80:268-277.

Yin Y, Li S, Liao W, Lu Q, Wen X, Lu C (2010). Photosystem II photochemistry, photoinhibition, and xanthophyll cycle in heat stressed rice leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology 167:959-966.

Zhang J, Lin Y, Zhu L, Yu S, Kundu SK, Jin Q (2015). Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on function of flag leaf and development of superior and inferior spikelets in rice cultivars differing in panicle types. Field Crops Research 177:64-74.

Zhu Z, Wei G, Li J, Qian Q, Yu J (2004). Si alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant enzymes activity in leaves of salt-stressed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plant Science 167:527-533.

Zou Y N, Wu Q S, Huang Y M, Ni Q D He X H (2013). Mycorrhizal mediated lower proline accumulation in Poncirus trifoliata under drought derives from the integration of inhibition of proline synthesis with increase of proline degradation. PLoS ONE 8:e80568.



How to Cite

SHARIFIAN, A., MIRZAKHANI, A., KHAGHANI, S., & KAKHAKI, S. F. (2022). The combined use of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus mitigate the adverse effects of drought stress on Matthiola incana. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(4), 12947.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50312947