Antioxidant activity of mustard green and Thai rat-tailed radish grown from cold plasma treated seeds and their anticancer efficacy against A549 lung cancer cells
Keywords:A549 cells, apoptosis, Brassica juncea, flavonoid, non-thermal plasma, phenolic acid, Raphanus sativus
Lung cancer is Thailand's second-highest cause of mortality. Mustard green (MG) and rat-tailed radish (RTR) 7-day-old microgreens were previously shown to exhibit cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HepG7 cells. However, both plants have yet to be tested on A549 lung cancer cells. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of MG and RTR plants grown from cold plasma treated seeds at different early growth periods and their anticancer activities against A549 lung cancer cells. Plant seeds primed with cold plasma at 21 kV (for MG) and 19 kV (for RTR) for 5 min were grown on vermiculite for 14, 21 and 28 days. Results showed that RTR-P and MG-P (plasma-treated seeds) showed significantly higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant phosphomolybdate activity than RTR-C and MG-C (control seeds). Highest cytotoxicity (Emax) of 95.41% against A549 cells was found in MG-P of 14 days at 72 h exposure with IC50 value of 67.11 µg/mL. Lower IC50 of 30.93 µg/mL was found in RTR-P of 14 days at 72 h exposure and Emax of 93.38%. MG-P and RTR-P had significantly more pronounced effects on apoptosis and migration-related gene expressions (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, p21, MMP-9 and cyclin D1) and also protein expressions (caspase-3, cytochrome c and p21). The RTR-P extract was more cytotoxic and antiproliferative than MG-P in human lung cancer cells. Cold plasma played a key role in enhancing cytotoxicity in these two plants with improved chemopreventive benefits for consumers.
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