Pot Aloe vera gel – a natural source of antioxidants

Authors

  • Raluca M. POP “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, No. 23, Marinescu Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO)
  • Ion C. PUIA “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery, 19-21 Croitorilor Street, Cluj-Napoca; “Octavian Fodor” Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 3rd General Surgery Clinic, 19-21 Croitorilor Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO)
  • Aida PUIA “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department Community Medicine, Discipline of Family Medicine, 19 Moţilor Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO)
  • Veronica S. CHEDEA Research Station for Viticulture and Enology Blaj (SCDVV Blaj), 515400 Blaj (RO)
  • Antonia M. LEVAI “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department Mother and Child, 3-5 Clinicilor Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO)
  • Ioana C. BOCSAN “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, No. 23, Marinescu Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO)
  • Anca D. BUZOIANU “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, No. 23, Marinescu Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50212732

Keywords:

antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, infrared spectroscopy

Abstract

Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely spread around the world and it is used in the food and cosmetic industry and traditional medicine due to its high content in bioactive compounds. Thus, this article investigated the phenolic compounds of Romanian Aloe vera gel and its antioxidant capacity.  The gel was extracted using 4 different solvents: methanol, ethanol, water, and acetone. Total phenolics were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total flavonoids by aluminium chloride reaction, and the antioxidant capacity by DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The profile of the phenolic compound was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection–Electro-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The methanolic extract had a significantly higher antioxidant activity, followed by ethanolic, water, and acetone extracts. The methanolic extract had also the highest total polyphenol content, while ethanolic extract had the highest total flavonoid content. The extracts contained 14 compounds identified as 7 chromones (Aloesin, Neoaloesin, Aloinoside A, Aloinoside E, Aloe-emodin-glucoside, Isoaloeresin D, Methoxycoumaroyl-aloresin) 2 flavones (Luteolin-glucoside, Apigenin-glucoside), one hydroxycinnamic acid (Caffeic acid) and 4 to anthrones (Aloin A, Aloin B, Emodin, Aloe-emodin). The LC-MS results showed important quantities of Aloesin, Neoaloesin, Aloeresin E, and Aloe-emodin-glucoside while FTIR analysis showed the presence of polysaccharides, pectins, anthraquinones, and saponins.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Ahlawat KS, Bhupender SK (2011). Processing, food applications and safety of Aloe vera products: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology 48(5):525. https://doi.org/10.1007/S13197-011-0229-Z

Aldayel TS, Grace MH, Lila MA, Yahya MA, Omar UM, Alshammary G (2020). LC-MS characterization of bioactive metabolites from two Yemeni Aloe spp. with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 13(4):5040-5049. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ARABJC.2020.02.003

Enas AKM (2011). Antidiabetic, antihypercholestermic and antioxidative effect of Aloe vera gel extract in alloxan induced antidiabetic, antihypercholestermic and antioxidative effect of Aloe vera gel extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5(11):1321-1327.

Mikel A-O, Pinela J, Barros L, Ćirić A, Silva SP, Coelho E, … Ferreira ICFR (2019). Compositional features and bioactive properties of Aloe vera leaf (fillet, mucilage, and rind) and flower. Antioxidants 8(10):1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100444

Ashafa AOT, Abass AA, Sunmonu TO, Ogbe AA (2011). Laxative potential of the ethanolic leaf extract of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. in Wistar rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2(3):158. https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5119.86268

Bele AA, Khale A (2016). Comparison of constituents in Aloe vera gel collected in different seasons by chromatography and spectroscopy techniques. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 5(9):1028-1040. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpr20169-6928

Bunea A, Rugină D, Copaciu F, Dulf F, Veres A, Socaci S, Pintea A (2020). Comparative analysis of some bioactive compounds in leaves of different Aloe species. BMC Chemistry 14(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-020-00720-3

Carac A, Boscencu R, Patriche S, Dinica RM, Carac G, Gird CE (2016). Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of extracts from Aloe vera leaves. Revista de Chimie 67(4):654-658.

Ceravolo I, Mannino F, Irrera N, Squadrito F, Altavilla D, Ceravolo G, Pallio G, Minutoli L (2021). Health potential of Aloe vera against oxidative stress induced corneal damage: an in vitro study. Antioxidants 10(2):1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ANTIOX10020318

Cesar V, Jozić I, Begović L, Vuković T, Mlinarić S, Lepeduš H, Borović Šunjić S, Žarković N (2018). Cell-type-specific modulation of hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity and 4-hydroxynonenal binding to human cellular proteins in vitro by antioxidant Aloe vera extract. Antioxidants 7(10):125. https://doi.org/10.3390/ANTIOX7100125

Chokboribal J, Tachaboonyakiat W, Sangvanich P, Ruangpornvisuti V, Jettanacheawchankit S, Thunyakitpisal P (2015). Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera. Carbohydrate Polymers 133:556-566. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CARBPOL.2015.07.039

Chowdhary V, Alooparampil S, Pandya RV, Tank JG (2021). Physiological function of phenolic compounds in plant defense system. In: Phenolic compounds-chemistry, synthesis, diversity, non-conventional industrial, pharmaceutical and therapeutic applications. https://doi.org/10.5772/INTECHOPEN.101131

Christ B, Müller KH (1960) Zur serienmaessigen Bestimmung des Gehaltes an Flavonol-Derivaten in Drogen. Archiv der Pharmazie 293:1033-1042.

Loots DT, van der Westhuizen FH, Botes L (2007). Aloe ferox leaf gel phytochemical content, antioxidant capacity, and possible health benefits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55(17):6891-6896. https://doi.org/10.1021/JF071110T

Enachi E, Boev M, Bahrim GE (2020). Aloe vera plant - an important source of bioactive compounds with functional value. Innovative Romanian Food Biotechnology 19:1-20.

Fiţ NI, Chirilă F, Nadăş G, Pall E, Mureşan R (2013). Comparative testing of antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of Aloe vera and Lycium barbarium. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca - Veterinary Medicine 70(1):72-76.

Folin O, Ciocalteu V (1927). On tyrosine and tryptophane determinations in proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 73(2):627-650.

Foster M, Hunter D, Samman S (2011). Evaluation of the nutritional and metabolic effects of Aloe vera. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition, pp 37-54. https://doi.org/10.1201/b10787-4

Goudarzi M, Fazeli M, Azad M, Seyedjavadi SS, Mousavi R (2015). Aloe vera gel: effective therapeutic agent against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from burn wound infections. Chemotherapy Research and Practice 2015:1-5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/639806

Hamman JH (2008). Composition and applications of Aloe vera leaf gel. Molecules 13(8):1599-1616. https://doi.org/10.3390/MOLECULES13081599

Hęś M, Dziedzic K, Górecka D, Jędrusek-Golińska A, Gujska E (2019). Aloe vera (L.) Webb.: natural sources of antioxidants–a review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 74(3):255-265. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11130-019-00747-5/FIGURES/1

Harris M, Brekke M, Dinant GJ, Esteva M, Hoffman R, Marzo-Castillejo M, … Aubin-Auger I (2020). Primary care practitioners’ diagnostic action when the patient may have cancer: an exploratory vignette study in 20 European countries. BMJ Open 10:e035678. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035678

Kanama SK, Viljoen AM, Kamatou GP, Chen W, Sandasi M, Adhami HR, Van Wyk BE (2015). Simultaneous quantification of anthrones and chromones in Aloe ferox (“Cape aloes”) using UHPLC–MS. Phytochemistry Letters 13:85-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYTOL.2015.04.025

Kang MC, Kim SY, Kim YT, Kim EA, Lee SH, Ko SC, … Jang HS (2014). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel. Carbohydrate Polymers 99:365-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CARBPOL.2013.07.091

Keyhanian S, Stahl-Biskup E (2007). Phenolic constituents in dried flowers of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) and their in vitro antioxidative capacity. Planta Medica 73(06):599-602. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-967202

Kiran P, Rao PS (2016). Development and characterization of reconstituted hydrogel from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) powder. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 10(3):411-424. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11694-016-9320-5

Kumalaningsih S, Wijana S, Yani J, Malang JV (2012). Identification of aloin and saponin and chemical composition of volatile constituents from Aloe vera (L.) Peel. Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology 2(5):79-84.

Kurek-Górecka A, Rzepecka-Stojko A, Górecki M, Stojko J, Sosada M, Świerczek-Zięba G (2013). Structure and antioxidant activity of polyphenols derived from propolis. Molecules. 19(1):78-101. https://doi.org/10.3390/MOLECULES19010078.

Lim ZX, Cheong KY (2015). Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 17(40):26833-26853. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cp04622j

Liu C, Cui Y, Pi F, Cheng Y, Guo Y, Qian H (2019). Extraction, purification, structural characteristics, biological activities and pharmacological applications of acemannan, a polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A review. Molecules 24(8):1554. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081554

Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Niruntraporn S, Kongkaew C (2007). The efficacy of Aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review. Burns 33(6):713-718. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BURNS.2006.10.384

Martínez-Sánchez A, López-Cañavate ME, Guirao-Martínez J, Roca MJ, Aguayo E (2020). Aloe vera flowers, a byproduct with great potential and wide application, depending on maturity stage. Foods 9(11):1542. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111542

Miramon-Ortíz DA, Argüelles-Monal W, Carvajal-Millan E, López-Franco YL, Goycoolea FM, Lizardi-Mendoza J (2019). Acemannan gels and aerogels. Polymers 11(2):330. https://doi.org/10.3390/POLYM11020330

Murillo-Amador B, Córdoba-Matson MV, Villegas-Espinoza JA, Hernández-Montiel LG, Troyo-Diéguez E, García-Hernández JL (2014). Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress. PLoS One 9(4):e94870. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0094870

Nejatzadeh-Barandozi F, Enferadi ST (2012). FT-IR study of the polysaccharides isolated from the skin juice, gel juice, and flower of Aloe vera tissues affected by fertilizer treatment. Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-2858-2-33

Park YI, Lee SK (2006). Chemical components of aloe and its analysis. In: New perspectives on Aloe. New York, Springer, pp 19-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-34636-8

Pérez YY, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, Hernández-Valencia M, Alarcón-Aguilar FJ, Tortoriello J, Román-Ramos R (2007). Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice. The American journal of Chinese Medicine 35(06):1037-1046. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X07005491

Puia A, Puia CI, Mois E, Graur F, Fetti A, Florea M (2021). The phytochemical constituents and therapeutic uses of genus Aloe: A review. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 49(2):1-16. https://doi.org/10.15835/NBHA49212332

Puia IC, Puia A (2013). Porcelain gallbladder and cancer-an association to be revised. Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases 22(3):358-359.

Quispe C, Villalobos M, Bórquez J, Simirgiotis M (2018). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of aloe vera from the Pica Oasis (Tarapacá, Chile) by UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS. Journal of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6123850

Radha MH, Laxmipriya NP (2015). Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 5(1):21-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JTCME.2014.10.006

Ramachandraiahgari RM, Somesula SR, Adi PJ, Mannur IS, Enamala M, Matcha B (2012). Protective role of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera antioxidant properties on liver and kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 7(1):175-184.

Ray A, Aswatha SM (2013). An analysis of the influence of growth periods on physical appearance, and acemannan and elemental distribution of Aloe vera L. gel. Industrial Crops and Products 48:36-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.INDCROP.2013.03.024

Ray A, Ghosh S (2018). Chemometrics for functional group distribution, and UV absorption potential of Aloe vera L. Gel at different growth periods. Materials Today: Proceedings 5(10):22245-22253. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATPR.2018.06.590

El Sayed AM, Ezzat SM, El Naggar MM, El Hawary SS (2016). In vivo diabetic wound healing effect and HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS/MS profiling of the methanol extracts of eight Aloe species. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 26(3):352-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BJP.2016.01.009

Sumi FA, Sikder B, Rahman MM, Lubna SR, Ulla A, Hossain MH, Jahan IA, Alam MA, Subhan N (2019). Phenolic content analysis of aloe vera gel and evaluation of the effect of aloe gel supplementation on oxidative stress and fibrosis in isoprenaline-administered cardiac damage in rats. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science 24(3):254. https://doi.org/10.3746/PNF.2019.24.3.254

Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG (2008). Properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses of Aloe vera plant. Indian Journal of Dermathology 53(4):163-166. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.44785

Svitina H, Swanepoel R, Rossouw J, Netshimbupfe H, Gouws C, Hamman J (2019). Treatment of skin disorders with Aloe materials. Current Pharmaceutical Design 25(20):2208-2240. https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190703154244

Tafi AA, Meshkini S, Tukmechi A, Alishahi M, Noori F (2020). Therapeutic and histopathological effect of Aloe vera and Salvia officinalis hydroethanolic extracts against Streptococcus iniae in Rainbow Trout. Archives of Razi Institute 75(2):275-287. https://doi.org/10.22092/ARI.2019.122855.1232

Talmadge J, Chavez J, Jacobs L, Munger C, Chinnah T, Chow JT, Williamson D, Yates K (2004). Fractionation of Aloe vera L. inner gel, purification and molecular profiling of activity. International Immunopharmacology 4(14):1757-1773. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.INTIMP.2004.07.013

Torres-Giner S, Wilkanowicz S, Melendez-Rodriguez B, Lagaron JM (2017). Nanoencapsulation of Aloe vera in synthetic and naturally occurring polymers by electrohydrodynamic processing of interest in food technology and bioactive packaging. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65(22):4439-4448. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01393

Uddin MN, Roy SC, Mamun AA, Mitra K, Haque MZ, Hossain ML (2020). Phytochemicals and in-vitro antioxidant activities of Aloe vera gel. Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences 44(1):33-41. https://doi.org/10.3329/JBAS.V44I1.48561

Xia EQ, Deng GF, Guo YJ, Li HB (2010). Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11(2):622-646. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11020622

Yagi A, Kabash A, Okamura N, Haraguchi H, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI (2002). Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of aloesin derivatives in Aloe vera. Planta Medica 68(11):957-960. https://doi.org/10.1055/S-2002-35666/ID/2

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

POP, R. M., PUIA, I. C., PUIA, A., CHEDEA, V. S., LEVAI, A. M., BOCSAN, I. C., & BUZOIANU, A. D. (2022). Pot Aloe vera gel – a natural source of antioxidants. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(2), 12732. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50212732

Issue

Section

Research Articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50212732