Invasive alien forest insect species in south-eastern Romania


  • Nicolai OLENICI National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry ‘Marin Drăcea’ Câmpulung Moldovenesc Station (RO)
  • Flavius BĂLĂCENOIU National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry ‘Marin Drăcea’ Bucharest (RO)
  • Romică TOMESCU National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry ‘Marin Drăcea’ Bucharest (RO)
  • Constantin NEȚOIU National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry ‘Marin Drăcea’ Craiova Station (RO)
  • Andrei BUZATU Transilvania University of Brașov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering (RO)
  • Alina ALEXANDRU National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry ‘Marin Drăcea’ Bucharest (RO)



alien insect species, biological invasions, forest, new pests


Biological invasions in forest ecosystems are recognised as a global scale challenge. However, our current knowledge of invasive alien forest insect species (IAFIS) in Romania is still lacking and rather insufficient to support clear policies. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of IAFIS in the Muntenia and Dobrogea provinces of Romania. For this purpose, direct observations and insect collections were made two consecutive years, in 76 locations. Of these, 67 sampling locations forming a long field observation route were visited only once, and nine sampling locations were fixed monitoring points with primed traps used in first year for regular collection of insects at 1-2-week intervals. Seventeen non-native forest insect species from five orders and 11 families were detected: Aproceros leucopoda, Cameraria ohridella, Corythucha arcuata, Cydalima perspectalis, Dasineura gleditchiae, Eopineus strobus, Euura tibialis, Gilletteella cooleyi, Hyphantria cunea, Ips duplicatus, Macrosaccus robiniella, Neoclytus acuminatus, Obolodiplosis robiniae, Parectopa robiniella, Phyllonorycter issikii, Prociphilus fraxinifolii and Xylosandrus germanus.  Eleven IAFIS species originate from North America, four from Asia and two from Europe. All detected species were previously reported from Romania, but eight species had not been recorded in these two provinces. Seven species live on native tree species, while 10 thrive on exotic trees or shrubs. The highest number of IAFIS was recorded in urban areas. Except for E. tibialis, all found IAFIS have a significant ecological or economic impact across invaded habitats. The risks posed by biological invasions need more thorough consideration that deserves greater attention and scientific support.


Metrics Loading ...


Adam C, Constantinescu IC, Drăghici AC, Fusu MM, Gheoca V, Iancu L, … Tăușan I (2020). Raport tehnic privind sursele bibliografice referitoare la speciile alogene invazive și potențial invazive de nevertebrate terestre din România, inclusiv a celor aflate pe lista speciilor de interes pentru Uniune [Technical report on bibliographic sources regarding invasive and potentially invasive alien species of terrestrial invertebrates in Romania, including those on the list of species of interest to the Union]. Bucureşti: Ministerul Mediului, Apelor şi Pădurilor & Universitatea din Bucureşti. Retrieved 2021 August 15 from: 12/Livrabil-1.5.1-Referinte-bibliografice-nevertebrate-terestre.pdf

Addinsoft (2021). XLSTAT - A complete statistical add-in for Microsoft Excel.

Alford DV (2007). Pests of fruit crops – A colour handbook. Academic Press, San Diego.

Alford DV (2012). Pests of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers. Second edition - A color handbook. Academic Press, San Diego.

Badea CA, Enescu CM (2016). Structura, diversitatea și starea de sănătate a vege¬tației urbane în București: un studiu de caz bazat pe aliniamente. Bucovina Forestieră 16(1): 9-22.

Bálint J, Neacșu P, Balog A, Fail J, Vetek G (2010). First record of the black locust gall midge, Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in Romania. North-Western Journal of Zoology 6(2):319-322.

Bălan C, Corduneanu C (2014). Cydalima perspectalis (Walker 1859) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Crambidae) la prima semnalare din Moldova (România) [Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859)] (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Crambidae) at the first observation in Moldavia (Romania)]. Mnemosyne 5:39-40.

Bălăcenoiu F, Buzatu A, Toma D, Alexandru A, Nețoiu C (2020). Occurrence of invasive insects on woody plants in the main green areas from Bucharest city. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 48(3):1649-1666.

Bălăcenoiu F, Nețoiu C, Tomescu R, Simon DC, Buzatu A, Toma D, Petrițan IC (2021a). Chemical control of Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832), an invasive alien species, in oak forests. Forests 12:770.

Bălăcenoiu F, Japelj A, Bernardinelli I, Castagneyrol B, Csóka G, Glavendekić M, … de Groot M (2021b). Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in its invasive range in Europe: perception, knowledge and willingness to act in foresters and citizens. NeoBiota 69:133.

Bărbuceanu D, Nicolaescu DP (2012). Pests of ornamental trees and shrubs in the parks of Piteşti and methods of fighting them. Current Trends in Natural Sciences 1(1):2-5.

Bednova OV, Belov DA (1999). The linden true midges (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in green plantations of Moscow and Moscow region. Lesnoy Vestnik/ Forestry Bulletin 2:172-177.

Bense U (1995). Longhorn beetles. Illustrated key to the Cerambycidae and Vesperidae of Europe. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim.

Bernardinelli I, Zandigiacomo P (2000). Prima segnalazione di Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Heteroptera, Tingidae) in Europa [First record of the oak lace bug Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Heteroptera, Tingidae) in Europe]. Informatore Fitopatologico 50(12):47-49.

Blada I (1963). Contribuţii la cunoaşterea bolilor şi dăunătorilor duglasului (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) în R. P. Română [Contributions to the knowledge of diseases and pests of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) in Romanian People’s Republic]. Revista Pădurilor 78(6):352-357.

Blank SM, Hara H, Mikulás J, Csóka G, Ciornei C, Constantineanu R, … Vétek G (2010). Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae): An East Asian pest of elms (Ulmus spp.) invading Europe. European Journal of Entomology 107(3):357-367.

Blank SM, Köhler T, Pfannenstill T, Neuenfeldt N, Zimmer B, Jansen E, ... Liston AD (2014). Zig-zagging across Central Europe: recent range extension, dispersal speed and larval hosts of Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera, Argidae) in Germany. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 41:57-74.

Boguleanu Gh (1994). Fauna dăunătoare culturilor agricole și forestiere din România. Vol. II. Insecta: Apterygota (Collebola, Thysanura), Pterygota (Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Isoptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera) [Fauna harmful to agricultural and forestry crops in Romania. Vol. II. Insecta: Apterygota (Collebola, Thysanura), Pterygota (Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Isoptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera)]. Editura Tehnică Agricolă, București.

Bolea V (1971). Principalii dăunători ai pinului strob aclimatizat în depresiunea Baia Mare [The main pests of Pinus strobus acclimatized in the Baia Mare depression]. Revista Pădurilor 86(8):408-410.

Borden JB, Flory SL (2021). Urban evolution of invasive species. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 19(3):184-191.

Branco M, Nunes P, Roques A, Fernandes MR, Orazio C, Jactel H (2019). Urban trees facilitate the establishment of non-native forest insects. NeoBiota 52:25-46. 52.36358

Bunescu H, Florian T (2016). The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Spilomelinae) a new invasive species in Cluj area (Romania). ProEnvironment 9(25):62-66.

CABI (2020). Invasive species compendium. Datasheet: Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer).

Cardaș G, Ciornei C, Lupastean D, Tomescu R, Apostol B (2011). Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera, Argidae): an East Asian pest of elm (Ulmus), invasive in Romania. In: Delb H, Pontuali S (Eds). Biotic Risks and Climate Change in Forests. Proceedings of the Working Party 7.03.10 Methodology of Forest Insect and Disease Survey in Central Europe, 10th Workshop September 20th-23rd, 2010, Freiburg, Germany. Berichte Freiburger Forstliche Forschung, Heft 89, FVA, pp 154-157.

Ceianu I, Teodorescu I (1973). Dendrocerus (Macrostigma) serricornis (Boh.), parazit al dipterului chamaemyiid Neoleucopis obscura Hal., prădător în cononii de Dreyfusia piceae Ratz. (Homoptera-Adelgidae) [Dendrocerus (Macrostigma) serricornis (Boh.), parasite of the chamaemyiid dipteran Neoleucopis obscura Hal., predator in the colonies of Dreyfusia piceae Ratz. (Homoptera-Adelgidae)]. Analele Universităţii Bucureşti, Seria Biologie Animală 22:65-72.

Chrystal RN (1922). The Douglas fir Chermes (Chermes cooleyi). Forestry Commission Bulletin No. 4. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.

Ciuvăț AL, Abrudan IV, Blujdea V, Marcu C, Dinu C, Enescu M, Nuță IS (2013). Distribution and peculiarities of black locust in Romania. Revista de Silvicultură și Cinegetică 32:76-85.

Colesca SE, Alpopi C (2011). The quality of Bucharest’s green spaces. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management 6(4): 45-59.

Colunga-Garcia M, Magarey RA, Haack RA, Gage SH, Q (2010). Enhancing early detection of exotic pests in agricultural and forest ecosystems using an urban-gradient framework. Ecological Applications 20(2):303-310.

DAISIE (2009). Handbook of alien species in Europe. Springer, Dordrecht.

Darr M, Salom S, Brooks RK, Foottit RG, Miller GL, Havill NP (2018). First report of Pineus strobi (Hartig, 1839) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in western North America. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 94(1):40-42.

Deschka G, Dimic N (1986). Cameraria ohridella sp.n. aus Mazedonien, Jugoslawien (Lepidoptera; Lithocolletidae) [Cameraria ohridella sp. n. (Lep., Lithocolletidae) from Macedonia, Yugoslavia]. Acta Entomologica Jugoslaviae 22(1-2):1-23.

Diaconescu V, Constantinescu M, Mihailescu S (1986). Grădina Botanică a Universității din Bucuresti la împlinirea a 125 de ani de existență [The Botanical Garden of the University of Bucharest on its 125th anniversary]. Analele știintifice ale Universității “Al. I. Cuza” din Iași (Serie noua) Secțiunea II-a. Biologie 32, supliment pp 144-145.

Don I, Don CD, Sasu LR, Vidrean D, Brad ML (2016). Insect pests on the trees and shrubs from the Macea Botanical Garden. Studia Universitatis ‘Vasile Goldiş’ Arad, Seria Ştiinţe Inginereşti şi Agro-Turism 11(2):23-28.

Drooze AT (1985). Insects of Eastern forests. USDA Forest Service Misc. Publ. 1426. Washington, DC.

Duduman ML, Isaia G, Olenici N (2011). Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) distribution in Romania. Preliminary results. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, Series II, Vol. 4 (53) No. 2:19-26.

Duso C, Skuhravá M (2003). First record of Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera Cecidomyiidae) galling leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) in Italy and Europe. Frustula entomol. (2002), n.s. 25(38):117-122.

Dutto M, Ferracini C, Faccoli M (2018). Gravi infestazioni di Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894)

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in castagneti del Piemonte [Serious infestations of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in chestnut plantations of North-Western Italy]. Forest@ 15:112-116.

EPPO (2008). Dasineura gleditchiae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): an invasive species in Europe. EPPO Reporting Service 11:2008/224.

Ermolaev IV, Rubleva EA (2017). History, rate, and factors of invasion of lime leafminer Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in Eurasia. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions 8(2):115-130.

Ermolaev IV, Zorin DA (2011a). Ecological consequences of invasion of Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in lime forests in Udmurtia. Entomological Review 91(5):592-598.

Ermolaev IV, Zorin DA (2011b). Distribution of the lime leafminer Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in natural stands. Entomological Review 91(9):1088-1091.

Favret C, Miller GL, Nieto Nafria JM (2007). Cata¬log of the aphid genera described from the new world. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 133(3-4):363-412.

Fora CG, Lauer KF (2008). Pineus strobi Htg. (Homoptera, Adelgidae), a pest of Pinus strobus. Research Journal of Agricultural Scienece 40(10):419-422.

Fora CG, Poşta DS (2015). Cydalima perspectalis Walk. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a dangerous pest of Buxus sempervirens in Timis County, Romania. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology 19(3):26-31.

Fora CG, Sasu L, Poşta D, Berar C (2016). Chemical possibilities of Cydalima perspectalis Walk. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) control. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology 20(3):31-34.

Fodor E, Hâruța O (2009). Niche partition of two invasive insect species, Parectopa robiniella (Lepidoptera; Gracillariidae) and Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Research Journal of Agricultural Science 41(2):261-269.

Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977). Western forest insects. USDA Forest Service Misc. Publ. 1339. Washington, DC.

Galko J, Dzurenko M, Ranger CM, Kulfan J, Kula E, Nikolov C, Zúbrik M, Zach P. (2019). Distribution, habitat preference, and management of the invasive ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in European forests with an emphasis on the West Carpathians. Forests 10(1):10.

Gancz V, Doniță N, Biriș IA, Bândiu C, Apostol J, Marcu J (2008). Forest map of Romania based on forest ecosystem types (1: 100.000). Editura Silvică, Voluntari.

Georgescu CC, Ene M, Petrescu M, Ștefănescu M, Miron V (1957). Bolile și dăunătorii pădurilor – biologie și combatere [Forest diseases and pests - biology and control]. Editura Agro-Silvică de Stat, Bucuresti.

Graf E, Manser P (2000). Beitrag zum eingeschleppten Schwarzen Nutzholzborkenkäfer Xylosandrus germa¬nus. Biologie und Schadenpotential an im Wald gelager¬tem Rundholz im Vergleich zu Xyloterus lineatus und Hylecoetus dermestoides [The imported Japanese scolytid beetle Xylosandrus germanus: biology and damage potential for stored round timber compared to Xyloterus lineatus and Hylecoetus dermestoides]. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 151:271-281. szf.2000.0271

Groschke F (1952). Der „Schwarze Nutzholzborkenkäfer“ Xylosandrus germanus Blandf., ein neuer Schädling in Deutschland [The „Black ambrosia“ Xylosandrus germanus Blandf., a new pest in Germany]. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 34:297-302. j.1439-0418.1953.tb00698.x

Gusic JV (1972). Pineus strobi, aphide du pin blanc (Pinus strobus) genre et espèce nouvellement signalés dans la faune de la Roumanie (Jardin Botanique de Bucarest et Parc Herăstrău) [Pineus strobi, white pine (Pinus strobus) aphid genus and species newly reported in the fauna of Romania (Bucharest Botanical Garden and Herăstrău Park)]. Acta Botanica Horti Bucurestiensis 10:677-678.

Haldeman SS (1847). Description of several new and interesting animals. American Journal of Agriculture and Science 6(18):191-194.

Hănceanu L, Dascălu M-M, Pintilioaie A-M (2021). New records of the alien longhorn beetle Neoclytus

acuminatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Romania. Travaux du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle “Grigore Antipa” 64(1):81-88.

Heidenreich E (1960). Primärbefall durch Xylosandrus germanus an Jungeichen. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde 33(1):5-10.

Holusa J, Grodzki W (2008). Occurrence of Ips duplicatus (Coleoplera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) on pines (Pinus sp.) in the Czech Republic and southern Poland - Short Communication. Journal of Forest Science 54(5):234-236.

Iamandei M (2010). Diaphania perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a new pest of Buxus spp. in Romania. Scientific Papers-Series B, Horticulture 54:787-793.

Jurc M, Jurc D (2010). Dasineura gleditchiae (Osten Sacken, 1866) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), honey locust pod gall midge. A new invasive species in Slovenia. Zbornik gozdarstva in lesarstva 91:89-92.

Katona G, Ronkay L, Szaboky C, Balint Z (2016). New data to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Salaj – Region, Transylvania, Romania (Arthropoda: Insecta). Studia Universitatis "Vasile Goldis", seria Științele Vieții, 26(4):411-414.

Keszthelyi S (2021). Red headed ash borer Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): the global distribution, current spreading and the seasonal activity depending on its different habitats. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 128:1187-1199.

Kirichenko N, Triberti P, Ohshima I, Haran J, Byun B-K, Li H, ... Lopez-Vaamonde C (2017). From east to west across the Palearctic: Phylogeography of the invasive lime leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and discovery of a putative new cryptic species in East Asia. PloS One 12(2):e0171104.

Kiritani K (2014). Invasive insect pests and plant quarantine in Japan. International plant protection convention. Invasive pest and plant quarantine in Japan. Retrieved 2014 June from:

Kiritani K, Morimoto N (2004). Invasive insect and nematode pests from North America. Global Environmental Research 8(1):75-88.

Knížek M, Beaver R (2004). Taxonomy and systematics of bark and ambrosia beetles. In: Lieutier F, Day KR, Battisti A, Gregoire JC, Evans HF (Eds). Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 41-54.

Kovač M, Gorczak M, Wrzosek M, Tkaczuk C, Pernek M (2020). Identification of entomopathogenic fungi as naturally occurring enemies of the invasive oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Insects 11:679.

Kovač M, Linde A, Lacković N, Bollmann F, Pernek M (2021). Natural infestation of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria pseudobassiana on overwintering Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and its efficacy under laboratory conditions. Forest Ecology and Management 491:119193.

Kovács Z, Kovács S, Szabóky C (2006). The occurrence of Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) and Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clemens, 1859), two invasive leafminer species in the fauna of Romania (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Entomologica romanica 11:5-7.

Krüger EO (2008). Glyphodes perspectalis (Walker, 1859) – Neu für die Fauna Europas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) [Glyphodes perspectalis (Walker, 1859) - New for the fauna of Europe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)]. Entomologische Zeitschrift 118:81-83.

Küster HC (1851). Die Käfer Europa’s. Nach der Natur beschrieben. Mit Beiträgen mehrerer

Entomologen [The beetles of Europe. Described according to nature. With contributions from several entomologists]. Band 22. Bauer & Raspe, Nürnberg.

Lompe A (2002). Die Käfer Europas. Ein Bestimmungswerk im Internet [The beetles of Europe. A determination work on the Internet].

Lopez-Vaamonde C, Agassiz D, Augustin S, De Prins J, De Prins W, Gomboc S, … Lees D (2010). Lepidoptera. Chapter 11. In: Roques A, Kenis M, Lees D, Lopez-Vaamonde C, Rabitsch W, ... David B. Roy DB (Eds). Alien Terrestrial Arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4(2):603-668.

Lupaștean D (2006). Considerații privind impactul speciilor Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) și Caliroa annulipes Klug. (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) asupra vegetației lemnoase din zonele urbane [Considerations concerning the impact of Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and Caliroa annulipes Klug. (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) on woody vegetation in urban areas]. Analele Universității Ștefan cel Mare”, Secțiunea Silvicultură, Serie nouă 1:63-70.

Maksymov JK (1987). Erstmaliger Massenbefall des schwarzen Nutzholzborkenkäfer Xylosandrus germanus Blandf., in der Schweiz [First mass attack of the ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus germanus Blandf., in Switzerland]. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 138(3):215-227.

Mally R, Ward SF, Trombik J, Buszko J, Medzihorsky V, Liebhold AM (2021). Non-native plant drives the spatial dynamics of its herbivores: the case of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) in Europe. NeoBiota 69:155-175.

Manci CO (2005). Neoclytus acuminatus (Fabricius, 1775) gen şi specie nouă pentru fauna României (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) [Neoclytus acuminatus (Fabricius, 1775) new genus and species for Romanian fauna (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)]. Buletin de Informare Entomologică 16:75-77.

Manci C-O, Corduneanu C, Balan C, Surugiu I (2014). First contribution to the study of lepidopteran fauna (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Stânca, Iaşi and new or scarcely known species from Moldova region (Romania). In: Popa LO, Adam C, Chişamera G, Iorgu E, Murariu D, Popa OP (Eds). International Zoological Congress of “Grigore Antipa” Museum - Book of abstracts. “Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Bucharest, Romania, pp 130.

Manolache C, Boguleanu Gh, Bratu N (1957). Contribuţii la studiul biologiei şi combaterii omizii păroase a dudului (Hyphantria cunea Drury.) [Contributions to the study of biology and control of mulberry hairy caterpillar (Hyphantria cunea Drury.)]. Analele Institutului de Cercetări Agronomice, Seria nouă 25(6):623-658.

Marcu O, Simon D (2006). Cercetări asupra insectei Cameraria ohridella (Lapidoptera, Gracilariidae) – molia minieră a castanului porcesc (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). Revista Pădurilor 121(1):14-20.

Marin Gh, Bouriaud O, Calotă CI, Nițu DM, Dumitru M (2019). Inventarul forestier național din România. Ciclul I (2008-2012) [The national forest inventory in Romania. Cycle I (2008-2012)]. Editura Silvică, Voluntari.

Martynov VV, Nikulina TV (2017). Population surge of zigzag elm sawfly (Aproceros leucopoda (Takeuchi, 1939): Hymenoptera: Argidae) in the northern Cis-Azov region. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions 8:135-142.

Mifsud D, Cocquempot C, Mühlethaler R, Wilson M, Streito J-C (2010). Other Hemiptera Sternorrhyncha (Aleyrodidae, Phylloxeroidea, and Psylloidea) and Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha. Chapter 9.4. In: Roques A, Kenis M, Lees D, Lopez-Vaamonde C, Rabitsch W, Rasplus J-Y, David B, Roy DB (Eds). Alien Terrestrial Arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4(1):511-552.

Mitchell R, Chitanava S, Dbar R, Kramarets V, Lehtijärvi A, Matchutadze I, ... Kenis M (2018). Identifying the ecological and societal consequences of a decline in Buxus forests in Europe and the Caucasus. Biological Invasions 20(12):3605-3620. 0-018-1799-8

Molnár B, Kárpáti Z, Szőcs G, Hall DR (2009). Identification of female-produced sex pheromone of the honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35(6):706–714.

Nagodă E, Comănescu P, Anastasiu P (2014). „Dimitrie Brandza” Botanic Garden, potential centre for the dispersal of invasive plants? Acta Horti Botanici Bucurestiensis 41:13-40.

Nanu N (1971). Contribuţii la cunoaşterea dăunătorilor duglasului (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) în Romania [Contributions to the knowledge of the pests of the Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) in Romania]. Revista Pădurilor 86(12):616-620.

Negru Ș, Ceianu I (1957) Contribuțiune la recunoașterea lui Ips duplicatus SahIb. (Coleoptera, Ipidae) și a vătămării produse [Contribution to the recognition of Ips duplicatus SahIb. (Coleoptera, Ipidae) and of the damage caused]. Analele Universității "C.l. Parhon" București, Seria Știintele Naturii 13:157-160.

Neţoiu C (2003). O nouă molie minieră a salcâmului din România: Phyllonorycter robiniella Clemens, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Gracillarridae) [A new miner moth of black locust in Romania: Phyllonorycter robiniella Clemens, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Gracillarridae)]. Oltenia. Studii și comunicări. Muzeul Olteniei Craiova, 19:154-156.

Neţoiu C (1994). Cercetări privind bioecologia moliei miniere a salcâmului - Parectopa robiniella [Research on the bioecology of the false acacia moth - Parectopa robiniella]. Bucovina forestieră 1(2):90-101.

Neţoiu C, Tomescu R (2006). Moliile miniere ale salcâmului (Parectopa robiniella Clemens, 1863 și Phyllonorycter robiniella Clemens, 1859, Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae [The leaf miners of black locust (Parectopa robiniella Clemens, 1863 and Phyllonorycter robiniella Clemens, 1859, Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)]. Analele ICAS 49:119-131.

Nețoiu C, Tomescu R, Olenici N, Buzatu A, Bălăcenoiu F, Iliescu O (2018). The invazive insect species in the Oltenia Region (Romania). Oltenia. Studii și comunicări. Muzeul Olteniei Craiova 34(1):111-123.

Olenici N, Duduman M-L, Tulbure C, Rotariu C (2009). Ips duplicatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) - un dăunător important al molidului din afara arealului natural de vegetaţie [Ips duplicatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) - a major pest of spruce outside the natural vegetation area]. Revista pădurilor 124(1):17-24.

Olenici N, Duduman ML, Olenici V, Bouriaud O, Tomescu R, Rotariu C (2011). The first outbreak of Ips duplicatus in Romania. In: Delb H, Pontuali S (Eds). Biotic Risks and Climate Change in Forests. Proceedings of the Working Party 7.03.10 Methodology of Forest Insect and Disease Survey in Central Europe, 10th Workshop September 20th-23rd, 2010, Freiburg, Germany. Berichte Freiburger Forstliche Forschung, Heft 89, FVA, pp 135-140.

Olenici N, Knížek M, Olenici V, Duduman M-L, Biriș I-A (2014). First report of three scolytid species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Romania. Annals of Forest Research 57(1):89-97.

Olenici N, Duduman M-L, Tomescu R (2015). Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) – un potenţial dăunător al pădurilor, livezilor şi viilor din România [Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) - a potential pest of forests, orchards and vineyards in Romania]. Bucovina Forestieră 15(2):207-216.

Olenici N, Duduman ML (2016). Noi semnalări ale unor specii de insecte forestiere invazive în România. [New records of some invazive forest insect species in Romania]. Bucovina Forestieră 16(2):161-174.

Olenici N, Blaga T, Tomescu R, Gogu I, Țilea Gh (2018). Cinci specii de insecte forestiere invazive în partea de nord-est a României [Five new invasive forest insect species in the north-eastern part of Romania]. Bucovina Forestieră 18(2):119-135.

Orlova-Bienkowskaja MJ (2014). Ashes in Europe are in danger: the invasive range of Agrilus planipennis in European Russia is expanding. Biol Invasions 16:1345-1349.

Orlova-Bienkowskaja MJ, Bieńkowski AO (2021). Alien pests can spread quickly: Wooly ash aphid Prociphilus fraxinifolii (Hemiptera: Eriosomatidae) has occupied Europe in 18 years. Forests 12:1176.

Orlova-Bienkowskaja MJ, Drogvalenko AN, Zabaluev IA, Sazhnev AS, Peregudova EY, Mazurov SG, ... Bieńkowski AO (2020). Current range of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an alien pest of ash trees, in European Russia and Ukraine. Annals of Forest Science 77(2):29.

Paap T, Burgess TI, Wingfield MJ (2017). Urban trees: bridge-heads for forest pest invasions and sentinels for early detection. Biological Invasions 19(12):3515-3526.

Pașol P, Dobrin I, Frăsin L (2007). Tratat de entomologie specială. Dăunătorii culturilor horticole [Special entomology treatise. Pests of horticultural crops]. Editura Ceres, București.

Paulin M, Hirka A, Eötvös CS, Gáspár C, Fürjes-Mikó A, Csóka G (2020). Known and predicted impacts of the invasive oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) in European oak ecosystems - a review. Folia Oecologica 47:131-139.

Perju T, Oltean I, Oprean I, Ecobici M (2004). Dăunătorii castanului ornamental - Aesculus hippocastanum L. în România [The pests of horse chestnut tree – Aesculus hippocastanum L. in Romania]. Journal of Central European Agriculture 5(4):331-336.

Pfeffer A (1955). Fauna ČSR. Svazek 6. Kůrovci Scolytidae. (Řád: Brouci – Coleoptera) [Fauna of Czechoslovakia. Volume 6. Bark beetles Scolytidae. (Order: Beetles - Coleoptera)]. Nakladatelství Československé akademie věd, Praha.

Pfeffer A (1995). Zentral- und westpaläarktische Borken- und Kernkäfer. Coleoptera: Scolytidae, Platypodidae [Central and West Palearctic bark and pinhole borer beetles. Coleoptera: Scolytidae, Platypodidae]. Pro Entomologia, c/o Naturhistorisches Museum Basel.

Pschorn-Walcher D (1982). Tenthredinidae, Echte Blattwespen [Tenthredinidae, Sawfly]. In: Schwenke W (Ed). Die Forstschädlinge Europas. 4. Band – Hautflügler und Zweiflügler [The forest pests of Europe. 4th volume - Hymenoptera and Diptera]. Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin, pp 128-196.

Radu S (2008). Pinus strobus: past and future in Europe. A page of silvicultural history and international scientific cooperation. Annals of Forest Research 51:133-140. index.php/afr/article/viewFile/150/196

Rasplus J-Y, Villemant C, Paiva MR, Delvare G, Roques A (2010). Hymenoptera. Chapter 12. In: Roques A, Kenis M, Lees D, Lopez-Vaamonde C, Rabitsch W, Rasplus J-Y, David B, Roy DB (Eds). Alien Terrestrial Arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4(2): 669-776.

Remaudière G, Ripka G (2003). Arrival in Europe (Budapest, Hungary) of American ash aphid, Prociphilus (Meliarhizophagus) fraxinifolii (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae, Pemphigini). Revue Francaise d’Entomologie 25(3):152.

Rodeland J (2007). Erstnachweis von Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) für Rheinland-Pfalz [First record of Phyllonorycter issikii (KUMATA, 1963) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Rhineland-Palatinate]. Mainzer Naturwissenschafliches Archiv 45:279-281.

Rogojanu V (1943). Insecte și alte animale dăunătoare plantelor agricole şi esenţelor silvice în judeţul Timiş-Torontal [Insects and other animals harmful to agricultural plants and forest species in Timiş-Torontal County]. Buletinul Facultăţii de Agricultură Cluj-Timişoara 10:307-334.

Roques A (2010). Taxonomy, time and geographic patterns. Chapter 2. In: Roques A, Kenis M, Lees D, Lopez-Vaamonde C, Rabitsch W, ... David B. Roy DB (Eds). Alien Terrestrial Arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4(1):11-26.

Roques A, Shi J, Auger-Rozenberg M-A, Ren L, Augustin S, Luo Y-q (2020). Are invasive patterns of non-native insects related to woody plants differing between Europe and China? Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 2:91.

Santini A, Faccoli M (2015). Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association. iForest 8:126-134.

Schowalter TD, Ring DR (2017). Biology and management of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Erebidae). Journal of Integrated Pest Management 8(1):1-6. jipm/pmw019

Scobiola-Palade X (1968). Contributions a l’étude des Hyménopteres de la région sudique de la Valachie [Contributions to the study of Hymenoptera of the southern region of Wallachia]. Travaux du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle „Grigore Antipa” 9:369-393.

Scobiola-Palade XG (1981). Fauna RSR. Insecta - vol. IX, fascicula 9 - Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Tentredinoidea, Fam. Tenthredinidae - Subfam. Blennocampinae, Nematinae. Editura Academiei R.S.R., București.

Šefrová H (2002). Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) - bionomics, ecological impact and spread in Europe (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Acta universitatis agriculturae et silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 50(3):99-104.

Šefrová H, Laštůvka Z (2001). Dispersal of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic, 1986, in Europe: Its course, ways and causes (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 111(7):194-198.

Šefrová H, Laštůvka Z (2005). Catalogue of alien animal species in the Czech Republic. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 54(4):151-170. 200553040151

Simberloff D, Martin JL, Genovesi P, Maris V, Wardle DA, Aronson J, … Vilà M (2013). Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28(1):58-66.

Simionescu A, Nițescu C, Vlădescu D, Vlăduleasa A (1992). Starea fitosanitară a pădurilor și culturilor forestiere din România în perioda 1976-1985 [Phytosanitary status of forests and forest crops in Romania in the period 1976-1985]. Editura Inter-Media, București.

Simionescu A, Mihalciuc V, Lupu D, Vlăduleasa A, Badea O, Fulicea T (2001). Starea fitosanitară a pădurilor din România în intervalul 1986-2000 [Phytosanitary status of forests in Romania between 1986 and 2000]. Editura Mușatinii, Suceava.

Simionescu A, Chira D, Mihalciuc V, Ciornei C, Tulbure C (2012). Starea fitosanitară a pădurilor din România în perioada 2001-2010 [Phytosanitary status of forests in Romania between 2001 and 2010]. Editura Mușatinii, Suceava.

Skolka M, Zaharia R (2014). Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) – new invasive species in Constanta. In: Popa LO, Adam C, Chişamera G, Iorgu E, Murariu D, Popa OP (Eds). International Zoological Congress of “Grigore Antipa” Museum - Book of abstracts. “Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Bucharest, Romania, pp 181.

Solomon JD (1995). Guide to insect borers of North American broadleaf trees and shrubs. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook AH-706, Washington, DC.

Somsai AP, Lukacs L, Florian T., Sestraş AF, Bunea CI, Hoble A, Vlaşin H (2019). Chemical control of box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in north-western Romania. Agricultura 3-4(111-112):210-216.

Stănescu V (1979). Dendrologie [Dendrology]. Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București.

Steffan AW (1972). Unterordnung Aphidina – Blattläuse [Suborder Aphidina - aphids]. In Schwenke W (Ed). Die Forstschädlinge Europas. 1. Band – Würmer, Schnecken, Spinnentiere, Tausendfüssler und hemimetabole Insekten. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin, pp 162-386.

Stolnicu AM, Ureche C (2007). Data regarding the presence of the Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Romanian fauna. Analele Ştiinţifice ale Universităţii Al. I. Cuza” Iaşi, s. Biologie animală 53:103-108.

Surányi P (1946). A féher medveszövőlepke és életmódja [The white bear weaver and his lifestyle]. Folia Entomologica Hungarica 1:87-90.

Șandru ID (1998). Larva minieră a frunzelor de castan (Cameraria ohridella). [Horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella)]. Sănătatea plantelor 6:29.

Șofletea N, Curtu L (2001). Dendrologie. Vol. II Corologia, ecologia și însușirile biologice ale speciilor [Dendrology. Vol. II Chorology, ecology and biological properties of species]. Editura "Pentru Viață", Brașov.

Ștefănescu M, Nițescu C, Simionescu A, Iliescu Gh (1980). Starea fitosanitară a pădurilor și culturilor forestiere din R.S. România în perioda 1965-1975 [Phytosanitary status of forests and forest crops in the R.S. Romania in the period 1965-1975]. Editura Ceres, București.

Teodorescu G, Roman T, Sumedrea M (2003). Entomologie horticolă. Dăunători specifici și metode de combatere [Horticultural entomology. Specific pests and control methods]. Editura Ceres, București.

Teucher G (1955). Zum Massenwechsel der Douglasien-Wollaus (Gilletteella cooleyi (Gill.) C.B.) in Deutschland [Concerning the mass change of Douglas fir woolly aphid (Gilletteella cooleyi (Gill.) C.B.) in Germany]. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde 9(6):102-108.

Thompson PB, Parrella MP, Murphy BC, Flint ML (1998). Life history and description of Dasineura gleditchiae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 74(2):85-98.

Tomescu R, Olenici N, Nețoiu C, Bălăcenoiu F, Buzatu A (2018). Invasion of the oak lace bug Corythucha arcuata (Say.) in Romania: a first extended reporting. Annals of Forest Research 61(2):161-170.

Toshova TB, Boyadzhiev P, Todorov I, Draganova S (2018). Parasitoids and fungal pathogens of Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) from Bulgaria. Biologia 73:1237-1245. 10.2478/s11756-018-0141-3

Tuncer C, Knížek M, Hulcr J (2017). Scolytinae in hazelnut orchards of Turkey: clarification of species and identification key (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 710:65-76. zookeys.710.15047

Ureche C (2006). Invasive leaf miner insects in Romania. Proc. the 7th Workshop on Methodology of Forest Insect and Disease Survey in Central Europe, IUFRO Working Party 7.03.10, Gmunden, Austria, September 11-14, 2006, pp 259-262.

van der Straten MJ, Muus TST (2010). The box tree pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an invasive alien moth ruining box trees. Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society Meeting 21:107-111.

van der Weijden V, Leewis R, Bol P (2007). Biological globalisation: Bio-invasions and their impact on nature, the economy and public health. KNNV Publishing, Utrecht.

VIB/UGent (2021). Calculate and draw custom Venn diagrams. Retrieved 2021 September 26 from

Vidano C (1970). Foglioline di Robinia pseudacacia con mine di un Microlepidotero nuovo per l'Italia [Robinia pseudacacia leaves with new microlepidoptera mines for Italy]. L'apicoltore moderno 61(10):I-II.

Whitebread SE (1989). Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clemens, 1859) in Europe (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Nota Lepidopterologica 12(4):344-353.

Wojciechowicz-Żytko E, Jankowska B (2004). The occurrence and harmfulness of Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clem.), a new leafminer of Robinia pseudoacacia L. trees. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities 7(1).

Zandigiacomo P, Cargnus E, Villani A (2011). First record of the invasive sawfly Aproceros leucopoda infesting elms in Italy. Bulletin of Insectology 64:145-149.

Zicha O (Ed) (1999-2021). BioLib.



How to Cite

OLENICI, N., BĂLĂCENOIU, F., TOMESCU, R., NEȚOIU, C., BUZATU, A., & ALEXANDRU, A. (2022). Invasive alien forest insect species in south-eastern Romania. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(1), 12618.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112618