Evaluation of remobilization rate, grain yield and antioxidant content of maize in reaction to biochar and humic acid amounts under water deficiency stress


  • Armaghan CHARKHAB Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (IR)
  • Mani MOJADDAM Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (IR)
  • Shahram LACK Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (IR)
  • Tayeb SAKINEJAD Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (IR)
  • Mohammad Reza DADNIA Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (IR)




antioxidant activity, catalase enzyme, grain yield, photosynthesis, water stress


In order to investigate the effect of biochar and humic acid on the rate of remobilization, grain yield and antioxidant content of maize under water deficiency stress, an experiment was conducted as asplit-split plot in the form of a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. The main plot involved water stress with three irrigation levels after depleting 30, 40 and 50% of field capacity, non-stress, moderate stress, and severe stress, respectively, asubplot withbiochar with 2 control levels (no use of biochar) and application of 4 tons in biochar hectares and another subplot having humic acid with 4 control levels (no use of humic acid) and application of 2, 4 and 6 liters per hectare of humic acid. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress, biochar and humic acid on grain yield, remobilization rate, current photosynthesis, share of current photosynthesis, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes was significant at the level of 1% probability. The highest grain yield was related to irrigation treatment after depleting 40% of field capacity and application of 4 tons per hectare of biochar. In total, the use of 4 liters per hectare of humic acid in moderate moisture stress conditions due to its positive role on the growth and hence on the 42% increase in the yield, compared to severe stress treatment and no consumption of humic acid, can be recommended under arid and semi-arid conditions to save water consumption, and reduce the effects of water deficit stress.


Metrics Loading ...


Abrishamkesh S, Gorji M, Asadi H, Poorbabaei AA, Bagheri Marandi GH (2017). Production of rice husk biochar and its effects on lentil and wheat biomass. Soil Management Sustainable Production 7(2):135-150. https://doi.org/10.22069/ejsms.2017.10016.1601

Ahmadpour R, Armand N (2020). Evaluation of seaweed extract (Ascophyllum nodosum) in improving germination indices of lentil cultivars. Journal of Seed Research 10(2):66-75.

Amiri H, Ismaili A, Hosseinzadeh SR (2017). Influence of vermicompost fertilizer and water deficit stress on morphophysiological features of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Karaj). Compost Science and Utilization 25(3):152-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2016.1249313 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2016.1249313

Anjum SA, Ashraf U, Tanveer M, Khan I, Hussain S, Shahzad B, ... Ali I (2017). Drought induced changes in growth, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant metabolism of three maize hybrids. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:1-12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00069 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00069

Ashraf M (2010). Inducing drought tolerance in plants: some recent advances. Biotechnology Advanced 28(1):169-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.11.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.11.005

Attarzadeh Sh, Mojaddam M, Saki Nejad T (2012). The interactive effects humic acid application and several of nitrogen fertilizer on remobilization star wheat. International Journal of Biosciences 3(8):116-123. https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.8.115-123 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.8.116-123

Azeem K, Naz F, Jalal A, Galindo FS, Teixeira Filho MSM, Khalil F (2021). Humic acid and nitrogen dose application in corn crop under alkaline soil conditions. Brazilian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering 25(10):657-663. Https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v25n1p3-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v25n10p657-663

Babaei Kh, Seyed Sharifi R, Pirzad AR, Khalilzadeh R (2017). Effects of bio fertilizer and nano Zn-Fe oxide on physiological traits, antioxidant enzymes activity and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress. Journal of Plant Interactions 12(1):381-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2017.1371798 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2017.1371798

Bahrani A, Heidari Sharif H, Tahmasebi Sarvestani Z, Moafpourian GH, Ayneh Band A (2011). Remobilization of dry matter in wheat: effects of nitrogen application and post-anthesis water deficitduring grain filling. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 39(4):279-293. https://doi.rog/10.1080/01140671.2011.599397 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2011.599397

Boominathan R, Doran PM (2002). Ni induced oxidative stress in roots of the Ni hyperaccumulator, Alyssum bertolonii. New Phytologist 156:205-215. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00506.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00506.x

Cui H, Zhou J, Zhao Q, Si Y, Mao J, Fang G, Liang J (2013). Fractions of Cu, Cd, and enzyme activities in contaminated soil as affected by applications of micro- and nanohydroxyapatite. Journal of Soils and Sediments 13:742-752. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-013-0654-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-013-0654-x

FAOSTAT (2018). Statistical database of the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome.

Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48:909-930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2010.08.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2010.08.016

Hafez Y, Attia K, Alamery S, Ghazy A, Al-Doss A, Ibrahim E, … Abdelaal K (2020). Beneficial effects of biochar and chitosan on antioxidative capacity, osmolytes accumulation, and anatomical characters of water-stressed barley plants. Agronomy 10(630):1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050630 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050630

Haghjoo M, Bahrani A (2015). Grain yield, dry matter remobilization and chlorophyll content in maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by nitrogen and water deficit. Bangladesh Journal Botany 44(3):359-365. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjb.v44i3.38540 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3329/bjb.v44i3.38540

Halek F, Delavari A, Kavousi-Rahim A (2013). Production of biodiesel as a renewable energy source from castor oil. Clean Technology Environment 15:1063-1068. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-012-0570-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-012-0570-6

Hoekman SK, Broch A, Robbins C, Ceniceros E, Natarajan M (2012). Review of biodiesel composition, properties, and specifications. Renew Sustainable Energy Revolution 16:143-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.143 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.143

Hoffman GJ, Howell TA, SolomonKH (1990). Management of farm irrigation systems. ASAE. Monograph No. 9. St. Joseph, MI, pp 1040.

Hosseinzadeh SR, Ahmadpour R (2018). Evaluation of vermicompost fertilizer application on growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthetic pigments of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) under moisture deficiency conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41(10):1276-1284. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2018.1450419. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2018.1450419

Hosseinzadeh SR, Amiri H, Ismaili A (2016). Effect of vermicompost fertilizer on photosynthetic characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under drought stress. Photosynthetica 54(1):87-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-015-0162-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-015-0162-x

Hosseinzadeh SR, Amiri H, Ismaili A (2017). Nutrition and biochemical responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to vermicompost fertilizer and water deficit stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 40(16):2259-2268. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1262412 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1262412

Kaman H, Kirda C, Sesveren S (2011). Genotypic differences of maize in grain yield response to deficit irrigation. Agriculture Water Management. 98(5):801-807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.12.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.12.003

Karim MR, Halim MA, Gale NV, Thomas SC (2020). Biochar Effects on soil physiochemical properties in degraded managed ecosystems in north-eastern Bangladesh. Soil Systems 4(69):1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems4040069 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems4040069

Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M (2006). Biochar sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11:403-427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-005-9006-5

Lobell DB, Roberts MJ, Schlenker W, Braun N, Little BB, Rejesus RM, Hammer GL (2014). Greater sensitivity to drought accompanies maize yield increase in the US Midwest. Science 344:516-519. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251423 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251423

Mahmoud E, Ibrahim M, Abd El-Rahman L, Khader A (2019). Effects of biochar and, phosphorus fertilizers on phosphorus fractions, wheat yield and microbial biomass carbon in Vertic torrifluvents. Communications in Soil Science Plant Analysis 50(3):362-372. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2019.1679162 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2018.1563103

Mahrokh A (2017). Current of photosynthesis and remobilization of assimilate affected spraying growth regulator under drought stress condition on maize cultivar KSC 704. Applied Field Crops Research 30(1):33-48. https://doi.org/10.22092/aj.2017.108051.1084.

Movludi A, Ebadi A, Jahanbakhsh S, Davari M, Parmoon G (2014). The effect of water deficit and nitrogen on the antioxidant enzymes activity and quantum yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 42(2):398-404. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha4229340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha4229340

Pakdaman N, Javanshah A, Nadi M (2018). The effect of humic and fulvic acids as bio-fertilizers on the growth of pistacia vera seedlings under alkaline conditions. Pistachio and Health Journal 1(4):13-20. https://doi.org/10.22123/phj.2019.154962.1020

Papakosta DK, Gagianas AA (1991). Nitrogen and dry matter accumulation, remobilization, and losses for Mediterranean wheat during grain filling. Crop Science Society American Agronomy Journal 83:864-870. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1991.00021962008300050018x DOI: https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1991.00021962008300050018x

Pullen J, Saeed K (2012). An overview of biodiesel oxidation stability. Renew Sustainable Energy 16(8):5924-5950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.06.024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.06.024

Seyed Sharifi R, Khalilzadeh R, Pirzad AR, Anwar S (2020). Effects of biofertilizers and nano zinc-iron oxide on yield and physicochemical properties of wheat under water deficit conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 51(19):2511-2524. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2020.1845350. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2020.1845350

Song L, Jin J, He J (2019). Effects of severe water stress on maize growth processes in the field. Sustainability 11(5086):1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185086 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185086

Tsanaktsidis CG, Christidis SG, Favvas EP (2013). A novel method for improving the physicochemical properties of diesel and jet fuel using polyaspartate polymer additives. Fuel 104:155-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.076 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.076

Ullah Z, Akmal M, Ahmed M, Ali M, Zaib A, Ziad T (2018). Effect of biochar on maize yield and yield components in rainfed conditions. International Journal Agronomy Agriculture Research 12(3):46-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3583644

Wang J, Cao L, Han S (2014). Effect of polymeric cold flow improvers on flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Fuel 117:876-881. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.10.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.10.006

Yuan GH, Xu RK, Zhang H (2011). The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Journal Bioresource Technology 102(3):3488-3497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.018



How to Cite

CHARKHAB, A., MOJADDAM, M., LACK, S., SAKINEJAD, T., & DADNIA, M. R. (2022). Evaluation of remobilization rate, grain yield and antioxidant content of maize in reaction to biochar and humic acid amounts under water deficiency stress. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(2), 12603. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50212603



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50212603