Genetic and chemical diversity analyses in tale grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)
Keywords:flavonol, HPLC, SRAP, SSR, Vitis vinifera
Vitis vinifera L. is one of the economically important plant crops worldwide which is a valuable food source for humans. This precious plant species has several local varieties and accessions which are continuously under selection and cultivation. Due to these human activities, the grape faces genetic homogeneity and erosion. Therefore, it is important to investigate available genetic diversity in grape plants all over the world. We aimed to study the genetic structure and diversity as well as chemical differences of seven grape cultivars in the country. We used SSR, and SRAP molecular markers for genetic diversity analyses, as well as biochemical traits. Both molecular markers showed a medium to moderate genetic variability in the studied grape cultivars (about 20% genetic polymorphism). Similarly, both molecular markers differentiated the studied cultivars into two genetic groups. AMOVA indicated significant genetic difference in these cultivars. ANOVA analysis of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and rutin) contents of seeds extract by HPLC indicated the significant difference (P <0.01) among grape cultivars. PCA biplot of cultivars based on chemical features separated these cultivars into two major groups according to their flavone and flavonoid contents. Pairwise Mantel tests performed between molecular and chemical data showed a significant association between SSR and SRAP data, but no significant association was obtained between either SSR or SRAP data with chemical features in grape cultivars studied. A heat-map constructed based on combined molecular and chemical data revealed that some of the studied grape cultivars are distinct in their genetic and chemical features.
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