The different responses of rice genotypes to heat stress associated with morphological, chlorophyll and yield characteristics

  • Khaled ABDELAAL Kafrelsheikh University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Botany Department, EPCRS Excellence Center, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology Laboratory, 33516 (EG)
  • Yasser MAZROU King Khalid University, Community College, Business Administration Department;Tanta University, Faculty of Agriculture (SA)
  • Ayman MOHAMED Kafrelsheikh University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agronomy Department (EG)
  • Mohamed GHAZY Rice Research and Training Center, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (EG)
  • Mohamed BARAKAT Rice Research and Training Center, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (EG)
  • Yaser HAFEZ Kafrelsheikh University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Botany Department, EPCRS Excellence Center, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology Laboratory, 33516 (EG)
  • Mahmoud GABALLAH Rice Research and Training Center, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (EG)
Keywords: chlorophyll, grain yield, heat stress, G x E interaction, rice


Sixteen rice genotypes were planted under normal and high temperature during 2018 and 2019 seasons to understand the mechanisms that make plants tolerant or susceptible to heat stress and methods which may lead to generate new varieties with sustainable yield production. The combined analysis showed significant differences at the level of probability 0.05 and 0.01 among years for all characters except, chlorophyll content and leaf rolling which would indicate wide differences among the weather of both years. Environment’s variance was significant at the level of probability 0.01 over all characteristics. The significant differences at the level of probability 0.01 were recorded among genotypes and G x E interaction variances for all characteristics. The highest values of panicles number plant-1 were obtained from ‘Giza 178’ and ‘Hybrid 2’, however, the highest values of 100-grain weight were recorded with ‘Giza 179’ and ‘Egyptian Yasmine’. The minimum values of sterility% were recorded with ‘Sakha 107’ and ‘IET1444’. Concerning the cultivars performance across two environments, the cultivars ‘Giza 178’, ‘Giza 179’, ‘Sakha 107’ and ‘IET 1444’ gave the best desirable values over natural and heat stress so, those cultivars are considered to play a vital role in breeding program to enhance heat stresses tolerance accompanied with high yield potential.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdallah AAA, Badawy S, Elrewainy IM, OElkhtyar AM (2011). Identifying heat tolerant rice genotypes under field conditions. Egyptian Journal of Agronomy 33(2):167-178.

Abdelaal KhAA, Attia KA, Alamery SF, El-Afry MM, Ghazy AI, Tantawy DS, … Hafez YM (2020). Exogenous application of proline and salicylic acid can mitigate the injurious impacts of drought stress on barley plants associated with physiological and histological characters. Sustainability 12:1736.

Abou Khadrah S, Gharib HS, Mohamed AA, Elhosary MA, Abdelaal KhA, Hafez YM (2020). Combination of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers improve physiological and yield characters of two wheat cultivars. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 29(10). (Under press)

Ahmad M, Naseer I, Hussain A, Zahid MM, Mustafa A, Hilger TH, … Minggang X (2019). Appraising endophyte–plant symbiosis for improved growth, nodulation, nitrogen fixation and abiotic stress tolerance: An experimental investigation with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Agronomy 9(10):621.

Allison LE (1965). Organic carbon. In: Black CA (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. ASA, Madison, USA, pp 539-577.

Azameti MK, Dauda WP, Panzade KP, Vishwakarma H (2021). Identification and characterization of genes responsive to drought and heat stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Vegetos 1-9.

Barnabás B, Jäger K, Fehér A (2008). The effect of drought and heat stress on reproductive processes in cereals. Plant, Cell and Environment 31(1):11-38.

Bremner JM (1965). Total nitrogen. In: Black CA (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. ASA, Madison, USA, pp 595-622.

Brestic M, Zivcak M, Hauptvogel P, Misheva S, Kocheva K, Yang X, Li X, Allakhverdiev SI (2018). Wheat plant selection for high yields entailed improvement of leaf anatomical and biochemical traits including tolerance to non-optimal temperature conditions. Photosynthesis Research 136(2):245-255.

Costa MVJ, Ramegowda Y, Ramegowda V, Nataraja KN, Sreeman SM, Udayakumar M (2021). Combined drought and heat stress in rice: responses, phenotyping and strategies to improve tolerance. Rice Science 28:1-14.

De Datta SK, Malabuyoc JA, Aragon EL (1988). A field screening technique for evaluating rice germplasm for drought tolerance during vegetative stage. Field Crops Research 19:123-124.

Elkelish A, Qari SH, Mazrou YM, Abdelaal KhA, Hafez YM, Abu-Elsaoud AM, … El Nahhas N (2020). Exogenous Ascorbic acid induced chilling tolerance in tomato plants through modulating metabolism, osmolytes, antioxidants, and transcriptional regulation of catalase and heat shock proteins. Plants 10:431.

EL Sabagh A, Hossain A, Barutcular C, Islam MS, Awan SI, Galal A, … Saneoka H (2019). Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production under drought and heat stress-adverse effects, mechanisms and mitigation: A review, Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17:8307-8332.

Faseela P, Sinisha AK, Brestič M, Puthur JT (2020). Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters as indicators of a particular abioti stress in rice. Photosynthetica 58:293-300.

Gaballah MM, Abu El-Ezz AF (2019). Genetic behaviour of some rice genotypes under natural and high temperature stress. Alexandria Science Exchange Journal 40(2):370-384.

Ghazy MI (2012) Response of rice growth and productivity to drought and heat stress conditions. M.Sc. Thesis, Agron. Dept. Fac. Agric., Kafrelsheikh Univ., Egypt.

Hafez Y, Elkohby W, Mazrou YSA, Ghazy M, Elgamal A, Abdelaal, KhAA (2020). Alleviating the detrimental impacts of salt stress on morpho-physiological and yield characters of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) using actosol, Nano-Zn and Nano-Si. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 29(8):6882-6897.

Hammer GL, McLean G, van Oosterom E, Chapman S, Zheng B, Wu A, … Jordan D (2020). Designing crops for adaptation to the drought and high-temperature risks anticipated in future climates. Crop Science 60(2):605-621.

Hanway JJ, Heidel H (1952). Soil analysis methods: as used in Iowa State College, Soil Testing Laboratory. Iowa Agricultural Research 7:364-374.

IPCC (2014). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IRRI, International Rice Research Institute. Standard evaluation system of Rice (SES). 2002. IRRI, Philippines.

Jagadish SVK, Craufurd PQ, Wheeler TR, (2007). High temperature stress and spikelet fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 58:1627-1635.

Jones PD, New M, Parker DE, Martin S, Rigor IG (1999). Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years. Reviews of Geophysics 37(2):173-199.

Kondamudi R, Swamy KN, Narasimha DV, Vishnuprasanth V, Rao YV, Rao PR, … Voleti SR (2021). Heat stress in rice – physiological mechanisms and adaptation strategies. In: Crop Stress and its Management: Perspectives and Strategies

Kown SH, Torrie JH (1964). Heritability and interrelationship among traits of two soybean populations. Journal of Crop Science 4:196-198.

Kumar N, Kumar N, Shukla A, Shankhdhar SC, Shankhdhar D (2015). Impact of terminal heat stress on pollen viability and yield attributes of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Cereal Research Communications 43(4):616-626.

Manigbas NL, Lambio LAF, Madrid LB, Cardenas CC (2014). Germplasm innovation of heat tolerance in rice for irrigated lowland conditions in the Philippines. Rice Science 21(3):162-169.

Maruyama A, Hamasaki T, Sameshima R, Nemoto M, Ohno H, Ozawa K, Wakiyama Y (2015). Panicle emergence pattern and grain yield of rice plants in response to high temperature stress. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 71(4):282-291.

Melo FV, Oliveira MM, Saibo NJM, Lourenço TF (2021). Modulation of abiotic stress responses in rice by E3-ubiquitin ligases: a promising way to develop stress-tolerant crops. Frontiers in Plant Science 12:1-13.

Naveed M, Mustafa A, Azhar SQTA, Kamran M, Zahir ZA, Núñez-Delgado A (2020). Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN and tree twigs derived biochar together retrieved Pb-induced growth, physiological and biochemical disturbances by minimizing its uptake and translocation in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Journal of Environmental Management 257:109974.

Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanable FS, Dean LA (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. US Dept Agric Circular, pp 939.

Pasuquin E, Hasegawa MT, Eberbach P, Wade LJ, Lafarge T, Pasuquin EM, … Reinke R (2013). Responses of eighteen rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to temperature tested using two types of growth chambers. Plant Production Science 16:217-225.

Paul P, Dhatt BK, Sandhu J, Hussain W, Irvin L, Morota G, Staswick P, Walia H (2020). Divergent phenotypic response of rice accessions to transient heat stress during early seed development. Plant Direct 4:1-13.

Peech M (1965). Hydrogen ion activity. In: Black CA (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties 9. ASA, Madison, USA, pp 914-925.

Poli Y, Basava RK, Panigrahy M, Vinukonda VP, Dokula NR, Voleti SR, Desiraju S, Neelamraju S (2013). Characterization of a Nagina22 rice mutant for heat tolerance and mapping of yield traits. Rice 6(1):1-9.

Rasel M, Tahjib-Ul-Arif M, Hossain MA, Hassan L, Farzana S, Brestic M (2020). Screening of salt-tolerant rice landraces by seedling stage phenotyping and dissecting biochemical determinants of tolerance mechanism. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 1-17.

Saeed Z, Naveed M, Imran M, Bashir MA, Sattar A, Mustafa A, … Xu M (2019). Combined use of Enterobacter sp. MN17 and zeolite reverts the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, physiology and antioxidant activity of Brassica napus. PLoS One 14:e0213016.

Sharma A, Rawat RS, Verma JS, Jaiswal JP (2013). Correlation and heat susceptibility index analysis for terminal heat tolerance in bread wheat. Journal of Central European Agriculture 14(2):57-66.

Steel RD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA (1997). Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach. (3rd Ed). McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, pp 400-408.

Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007). Heat tolerance in plants: An overview. Environmental and Experimental Botany 61:199-223.

Wang B, Zhong Z, Wang X, Han X, Yu D, Wang C, Song W, Zheng X, Chen C, Zhang Y (2020). Knockout of the OsNAC006 transcription factor causes drought and heat sensitivity in rice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21(2288):1-14.

Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003). Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 2187:1-14.

Xu J, Henry A, Sreenivasulu N (2020). Rice yield formation under high day and night temperatures-A prerequisite to ensure future food security. Plant Cell and Environment 43(7):1595-1608.

Yoshida S (1981) Fundamentals of rice crop science. In: Climate and Rice. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.

Zhao C, Shilong P, Wang X, Lobell DB, Huang Y, Huang M, Yao Y (2017). Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(35):9326-9331.

How to Cite
ABDELAAL, K., MAZROU, Y., MOHAMED, A., GHAZY, M., BARAKAT, M., HAFEZ, Y., & GABALLAH, M. (2021). The different responses of rice genotypes to heat stress associated with morphological, chlorophyll and yield characteristics. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(4), 12550.
Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha49412550