Interaction of cultivar and irrigation on mixtures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with pea (Pisum sativum L.)
Keywords:biomass, competition, intercropping indices, leaf area index, radiation use efficiency, yield
Intercropping is the simultaneous cultivation of two or more crops species in the same space for a considerable proportion of the growth period. Intercropping has several advantages and is used in both traditional and sustainable agriculture. The objective of the present study was to study the interactions among different pea and wheat cultivars and the effect of water availability on wheat-pea mixtures and the competition between the two species. The experiment was conducted for two successive growing seasons using two different irrigation regimes and two cultivars from each species. The different treatments were evaluated using morphological and agronomic characteristics. Intercropping treatment, cultivars, and irrigation level affected most of the characteristics that were studied and the competition between the two species. Biomass was higher by 47% and leaf area index by 34% under irrigation compared to the rainfed conditions. The different cultivars showed different response under the two water regimes. Based on the intercropping indices, the mixture ‘Yecora E’ - ‘Isard’ is favoured under irrigation while the combination ‘Elissavet’ - ‘Isard’ under low water availability. There was interaction between cultivars and irrigation and using different cultivars in intercropping can have higher yield advantage than monocropping by exploiting the environmental resources more efficiently. Therefore, the use of appropriate cultivars in mixtures can affect the growth, biomass yield and competition between the two species leading to higher yield and greater economic return.
Agegnehu G, Ghizaw A, Sinebo W (2006). Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy 25:202-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2006.05.002
Al-Suhaibani NA (2011). Better forage and grain yield quality of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) under different irrigation water supplies and plant densities. World Applied Sciences Journal 15:1136-1143.
Amanullah, Khalid S, Khalil F, Imranuddin (2020). Influence of irrigation regimes on competition indexes of winter and summer intercropping system under semi-arid regions of Pakistan. Scientific Reports 10:8129. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65195-7
Banik P (1996). Evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and legume intercropping under 1:1 and 2:1 row-replacement series system. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 176(5):289-294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.1996.tb00473.x
Banik P, Sasmal T, Ghosal PK, Bagchi DK (2000). Evaluation of mustard (Brassica campestris var. Toria) and legume intercropping under 1:1 and 2:1 row-replacement series systems. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 185(1):9-14. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037X.2000.00388.x
Barillot R, Combes D, Chevalier V, Fournier C, Escobar-Gutiérrez AJ (2012). How does pea architecture influence light sharing in virtual wheat-pea mixtures? A simulation study based on pea genotypes with contrasting architectures. The Annals of Botany Plants 2012:pls038. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/pls038
Barillot R, Combes D, Pineau S, Huynh P, Escobar-Gutiérrez AJ (2014a). Comparison of the morphogenesis of three genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum) grown in pure stands and wheat-based intercrops. The Annals of Botany Plants 6:plu006. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plu006
Barillot R, Escobar-Gutiérrez AJ, Fournier C, Huynh P, Combes D (2014b). Assessing the effects of architectural variations on light partitioning within virtual wheat-pea mixtures. Annals of Botany 114(4):725-737. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu099
Barod NK, Kumar S, Irfan M (2017). Residual soil fertility and yield in pigeon pea, pearl millet and green gram as influenced by intercropping systems under western Haryana condition. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6(3):2233-2239. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.603.255
Bedoussac L, Journet E-P, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Naudin C, Corre-Hellou G, Jensen ES, Prieur L, Justes E (2015). Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming. A review. Agronomy of Sustainable Development 35:911-935. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-014-0277-7
Bedoussac L, Journet E-P, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Naudin C, Corre-Hellou G, Jensen ES, Justes E (2018). Grain legume-cereal intercropping systems. In: Sivasankar S, Bergvinson D, Gaur P, Agrawal SK, Beebe S, Tamò M (Εds.) Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Grain Legumes. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, Cambridge, UK.
Bedoussac L, Justes E (2011). A comparison of commonly used indices for evaluating species interactions and intercrop efficiency: Application to durum wheat-winter pea intercrops. Field Crops Research 124(1):25-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.05.025
Blum A (2011). Plant breeding for water-limited environments. Springer, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7491-4
Brooker RW, Bennett AE, Cong W-F, Daniell TJ, George TS, Hallett PD, … White PJ (2015). Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology. New Phytologist 206(1):107-117. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13132
Caballero R, Goicoechea EL, Hernaiz PJ (1995). Forage yields and quality of common vetch and oat sown at varying seeding ratios and seeding rates of common vetch. Field Crops Research 41(2):135-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(94)00114-R
Chen C, Westcott M, Neill K, Wichman D, Knox M (2004). Row configuration and nitrogen application for barley-pea intercropping in Montana. Agronomy Journal 96(6):1730-1738. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2004.1730
De Wit CT (1960). On competition. Verslag Landbouw-Kundige Onderzoek. 66:1–28.
del Pozo A, Brunel-Saldias N, Engler A, Ortega-Farias S, Acevedo-Opazo C, Lobos GA, … Molina-Montenegro MA (2019). Climate change impacts and adaptation strategies of agriculture in Mediterranean-Climate Regions (MCRs). Sustainability 11(10):2769. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102769
Dhima KV, Lithourgidis AS, Vasilakoglou IB, Dordas CA (2007). Competition indices of common vetch and cereal intercrops in two seeding ratio. Field Crops Research 100:249-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2006.07.008
Dordas C, Papathanasiou F, Lithourgidis A, Petrevska JK, Papadopoulos I, Pankou C, … Tokatlidis IS (2018). Evaluation of physiological characteristics as selection criteria for drought tolerance in maize inbred lines and their hybrids. Maydica 63(2):1-14.
Dordas CA, Lithourgidis AS (2011). Growth, yield and nitrogen performance of faba bean intercrops with oat and triticale at varying seeding ratios. Grass and Forage Science 66(4):569-577. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2011.00814.x
Elhakeem A, Van der Werf W, Bastians L (2021). Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency in mixtures of winter cover crops. Field Crops Research 264:108034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2020.108034
Farre I, Faci MJ (2006). Comparative response of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to deficit irrigation in a Mediterranean environment. Agricultural Water Management 83(1-2):135-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.11.001
Fernandez AL, Sheaffer CC, Wyse DL (2015). Productivity of field pea and lentil with cereal and brassica intercrops. Agronomy Journal 107(1):249-256. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj14.0361
Ghosh PK (2004). Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India. Field Crops Research 88(2-3):227-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2004.01.015
Justes E, Bedoussac L, Dordas C, Frak E, Louran G, Boudsocq S, … Li L (2021). The 4C approach as a way to understand species interactions determining intercropping productivity. Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering 8(3):387-399. https://doi.org/10.15302/J-FASE-2021414
Kalamartzis I, Dordas C, Georgiou P, Menexes G (2020a). The use of appropriate cultivar of basil (Ocimum basilicum) can Increase water use efficiency under water stress. Agronomy 10(1):70. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10010070
Kalamartzis I, Georgiou P, Menexes G, Dordas C (2020b). Effect of water stress on the physiological and quality characteristics of five basil (Ocimum basilicum) cultivars. Agronomy 10(7):1029. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10071029
Karlidag H, Yildirim E (2007). The effects of nitrogen fertilization on intercropped strawberry and broad bean. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 29(4):61-74. https://doi.org/10.1300/J064v29n04_06
Khippal A, Hooda RS (2002). Effect of pearl millet hybrids/composites to irrigation applied at different stages of growth. Haryana Journal of Agronomy 18:75-77.
Klima K, Synowiec A, Puła J, Chowaniak M, Puzynska K, Gala-Czekaj D, … Lepiarczyk A (2020). Long-term productive, competitive, and economic aspects of spring cereal mixtures in integrated and organic crop rotations. Agriculture 10(6):231. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10060231
Kumar S, Singh R, Kadian V (2005). Compatibility of pigeonpea and greengram intercropping systems in relation to row ratio and row spacing. Legume Research 29(3):213-215.
Lithourgidis AS, Dordas CA (2010). Forage yield, growth rate, and nitrogen uptake of faba bean intercrops with wheat, barley, and rye in three seeding ratios. Crop Science 50(5):2148-2158. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2009.12.0735
Lithourgidis AS, Dordas CA, Damalas CA, Vlachostergios DN (2011). Annual intercrops: an alternative pathway for sustainable agriculture. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(4):396-410.
Lithourgidis AS, Vlachostergios DN, Dordas CA, Damalas CA (2011). Dry matter yield, nitrogen content, and competition in pea-cereal intercropping systems. European Journal of Agronomy 34(4):287-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2011.02.007
Lv W, Zhao X, Wu P, Lv J, He H (2021). A scientometric analysis of worldwide intercropping research based on web of science database between 1992 and 2020. Sustainability 13(5):2430. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052430
Maitra S, Hossain A, Brestic M, Skalicky M, Ondrisik P, Gitari H, … Sairam M (2021). Intercropping-A low input agricultural strategy for food and environmental security. Agronomy 11(2):343. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020343
McGilchrist CA (1965). Analysis of competition experiments. Biometrics 21:975-985. https://doi.org/10.2307/2528258
Mead R, Willey RW (1980). The concept of a land equivalent ratio and advantages in yields for intercropping. Experimental Agriculture 16(3):217-228. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479700010978
Midya A, Bhattacharjee K, Ghose SS, Banik P (2005). Deferred seeding of blackgram (Phaseolus mungo L.) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) field on yield advantages and smothering of weeds. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191(3):195-201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2005.00157.x
Monti M, Pellicanò A, Santonoceto C, Preiti G, Pristeri A (2016). Yield components and nitrogen use in cereal-pea intercrops in Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Research 196:379-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.07.017
Ofori F, Stern WR (1987). Cereal-legume intercropping systems. Advances in Agronomy 41:41-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60802-0
Pankou C, Lithourgidis A, Dordas C (2021). Effect of irrigation on intercropping systems of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with pea (Pisum sativum L.). Agronomy 11(2):283. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020283
Pellicanò A, Romeo M, Pristeri A, Preiti G, Monti M (2015). Cereal-pea intercrops to improve sustainability in bioethanol production. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35:827-835. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-015-0294-1
Pelzer E, Bazot M, Guichard L, Jeuffroy M-H (2016). Crop management affects the performance of a winter pea–wheat intercrop. Agronomy Journal 108(3):1089-1100. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2015.0440
Raseduzzaman Md, Jensen ES (2017). Does intercropping enhance yield stability in arable crop production? A meta-analysis. European Journal of Agronomy 91:25-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2017.09.009
Sohail S, Ansar M, Skalicky M, Wasaya A, Soufan W, Ahmad Yasir T, … El Sabagh A (2021). Influence of tillage systems and cereals-legume mixture on fodder yield, quality and net returns under rainfed conditions. Sustainability 13(4):2172. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042172
Stomph T, Dordas C, Baranger A, de Rijk J, Dong B, Evers J, … van der Werf W (2020). Designing intercrops for high yield, yield stability and efficient use of resources: are there principles? Advances in Agronomy 160(1):1-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2019.10.002
Vandermeer JH (1990). Intercropping. In: Caroll CR, Vandermeer JH, Rosset PM (Εds). Agroecology. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA pp 481-516.
Willey RW (1979). Intercropping - Its importance and research needs: Part I. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crop Abstracts 32:1-10.
Willey RW, Rao MR (1980). A competitive ratio for quantifying competition between intercrops. Experimental Agriculture 16(2):117-125. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479700010802
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.