Dual inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Enterobacter alleviates the adverse effect of salinity on Glycine max seedling
The aid of beneficial microbes, which is a well-accepted strategy, may improve plant salt tolerance. However, the mechanisms that underpin it are unclear. In this study, seedling experiments were carried out to assess the effect of Bradyrhizobium and Enterobacter on the germination, growth, nonenzymatic and enzymatic content in soybean (Glycine max L.) under salt stress. Water was sprayed on the seeds as a control, and with 75 mM, 150 mM NaCl as salt stress. The findings demonstrate that salt stress (75, 150 mM) caused a significant decrease in germination, morphological criteria, and membrane stability index (MSI) when compared to control seeds but increased lipid peroxidation (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), osmotic pressure, proline, citric acid, sugar content, antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, endophytic Bradyrhizobium and Enterobacter inoculation resulted in a significant rise in all of the above metrics.; however, these treatments resulted in significant reductions in ROS, EL, and MDA in stressed plants. Finally, the findings showed that combining Bradyrhizobium and Enterobacter was the most efficient in reducing the harmful effects of salt on soybean plants by boosting antioxidant up-regulation and lowering membrane leakage and ROS.
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