Recent advancements on use of CRISPR /Cas9 in maize yield and quality improvement

  • Syed F.A. GILLANI Gansu Agricultural University, College of Agronomy, Lanzhou 730070; Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou 730070 (CN)
  • Adnan RASHEED Jiangxi Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education / College of Agronomy, Nanchang 330045; Jilin Changfa Modern Agricultural Science and Technology Group Co., Ltd. (CN)
  • Yasir MAJEED Gansu Agricultural University, College of Agronomy, Lanzhou 730070; Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou 730070 (CN)
  • Huma TARIQ University of Poonch Rawalakot, Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetic, Azad Kashmir (PK)
  • Peng YUNLING Gansu Agricultural University, College of Agronomy, Lanzhou 730070; Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou 730070 (CN)
Keywords: ALS, breeding, complex trait loci, CRISPR-Cas, Cas9 gene, editing, genome editing, maize, waxy


CRISPR/Cas is a genome editing technique, permits accurate improvement of fiscally significant yield species by transgenic and non-transgenic strategies. We have reviewed CRISPR/Cas9 with or without DNA solution design in both maize as samples to redesign tolerance against dry season obstruction, improving seed’s oil contents production, and a gift of herbicide strength. Fundamentally, by exploiting the technologies of CRISPR/Cas9, development with late advances in plant tissue culture can be brought directly into monetarily significant genotypes. The various crop species are major agricultural products and play an indispensable role in sustaining human life. Over a long period, breeders strove to increase crop yield and improve quality through traditional breeding strategies. Today, many breeders have achieved remarkable results using modern molecular technologies. Recently, a new gene-editing system named the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats CRISPR/Cas9 technology has also improved crop quality. It has become the most popular tool for crop improvement due to its versatility. It has accelerated crop breeding progress by its precision in specific gene editing. This review summarizes the current application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in crop quality improvement. It includes the modulation in appearance, palatability, nutritional components, and other preferred traits of various crops. Assortment created through such CRISPR/Cas9 engaged advanced raising procedures can be muddled from the regularly happening assortment and appropriately should be quickly open for commercialization.


Metrics Loading ...


Abe K, Araki E, Suzuki Y, Toki S, Saika H (2018). Production of high oleic/low linoleic rice by genome editing. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 131:58-62.

Abudayyeh OO, Gootenberg JS, Konermann S, Joung J, Slaymaker IM (2016). C2c2 is a single-component programmable RNA-guided RNA-targeting CRISPR effector. Science 353:aaf5573.

Acevedo Garcia J, Kusch S, Panstruga R (2014). Magical mystery tour: MLO proteins in plant immunity and beyond. New Phytologist 204:273-281.

Adnan M, Fahad S, Muhammad Z, Shahen S, Ishaq AM, Subhan D, … Rahul D (2020). Coupling phosphate-solubilizing bacteria with phosphorus supplements improve maize phosphorus acquisition and growth under lime induced salinity stress. Plants 9(900).

Ahmad S, Kamran M, Ding R, Meng X, Wang H, Ahmad I, Fahad S, Han Q (2019). Exogenous melatonin confers drought stress by promoting plant growth, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant defense system of maize seedlings. Peer Journal 7:e7793.

Ali Z, Abulfaraj A, Idris A, Ali S, Tashkandi M, Mahfouz M (2015). CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants. Genome Biology 16:238.

Ali Z, Ali S, Tashkandi M, Zaidi SS, Mahfouz MM (2016). CRISPR/Cas9-mediated immunity to geminiviruses: differential interference and evasion. Scientific Reports 6:26912.

Alonge M, Wang XG, Benoit M, Soyk S, Pereira L, Zhang L, Suresh H, Ramakrishnan S (2020). Major impacts of widespread structural variation on gene expression and crop improvement in tomato. Cell 182:145-161.

Al-Wabel MI, Ahmad M, Usman AR, Akanji M, Rafique MI (2020). Advances in pyrolytic technologies with improved carbon capture and storage to combat climate change. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer, Cham, pp 535-575.

Al-Wabel MI, Sallam A, Ahmad M, Elanazi K, Usman AR (2020). Extent of climate change in Saudi Arabia and its impacts on agriculture: a case study from Qassim region. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer, Cham, pp 635-657.

Amjad I, Muhammad H, Farooq S, Anwar H (2020). Role of plant bioactive in sustainable agriculture. In: Fahad S, Hasanuzzaman M, Alam M, Ullah H, Saeed M, Khan AK, Adnan M (Eds). Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 591-606.

Ananiev EV, Wu C, Chamberlin MA (2009). Artificial chromosome formation in maize (Zea mays L.). Chromosoma 118(2):157-177.

Andersson M, Turesson H, Nicolia A, Falt AS, Samuelsson M, Hofvander P (2017). Efficient targeted multiallelic mutagenesis in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) by transient CRISPR-Cas9 expression in protoplasts. Plant Cell Report 36:117-128.

Andersson M, Turesson H, Olsson N, Falt AS, Ohlsson P (2018). Genome editing in potato via CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein delivery. Physiologia Plantarum 164:378-384.

Angaji SA (2009). Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and its application on mapping and marker-assisted plant breeding. African Journal of Biotechnology 8:908-914.

Anzalone AV, Koblan LW, Liu DR (2020). Genome editing with CRISPR-Cas nucleases, base editors, transposases and prime editors. Nature Biotechnology 38:824-844.

Anzalone AV, Randolph PB, Davis JR, Sousa AA, Koblan LW, Levy JM, … Liu DR (2019). Search-and-replace genome editing without double-strand breaks or donor DNA. Nature 576:149-157.

Araki M, Ishii T (2015). Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing. Trends in Plant Science 20:145-149.

Ariizumi T, Shinozaki Y, Ezura H (2013). Genes that influence yield in tomato. Breeding Science 63:3-13.

Arimura S, Ayabe H, Sugaya H, Okuno M, Tamura Y, Tsuruta Y, … Tsutsumi N (2020). Targeted gene disruption of ATP synthases 6-1 and 6-2 in the mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by mitoTALENs. Plant Journal 104:1459-1471.

Ashrafi DE, Alemzadeh A, Tanaka N, Razi H (2018). Meta-analysis of transcriptomic responses to biotic and abiotic stress in tomato. Peer Journal 6:e4631.

Bachtiar V, Near J, Johansen-Berg H, Stagg CJ (2015). Modulation of GABA and resting state functional connectivity by transcranial direct current stimulation. Elife 4:e08789.

Bai Y, Sunarti S, Kissoudis C, Visser RGF, van der Linden CG (2018). The role of tomato WRKY genes in plant responses to combined abiotic and biotic stresses. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:801.

Bai YL, Lindhout P (2007). Domestication and breeding of tomatoes: what have we gained and what can we gain in the future? Annals of Botany 100:1085-1094.

Baltes NJ, Hummel AW, Konecna E, Cegan R, Bruns AN (2015). Conferring resistance to geminiviruses with the CRISPR–Cas prokaryotic immune system. Nature Plants 1:15145.

Bao Z, Xiao H, Liang J, Zhang L, Xiong X, Sun N (2015). Homology-integrated CRISPR-Cas (HI-CRISPR) system for one-step multigene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ACS Synthetic Biology 4:585-594.

Baseer M, Adnan M, Fazal M, Fahad S, Muhammad S, Fazli W, … Ishaq AM (2019). Substituting urea by organic wastes for improving maize yield in alkaline soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition.

Begemann MB, Gray BN, January E, Singer A, Kelser DC (2017). Characterization and validation of a novel group of type V, class 2 nucleases for in vivo genome editing. BioRxiv 192799.

Beló A (2009). Allelic genome structural variations in maize detected by array comparative genome hybridization. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 120:355-367.

Bemer M, Karlova R, Ballester AR, Tikunov YM, Bovy AG, Wolters Arts M, … de Maagd RA (2012). The tomato FRUITFUL homologs TDR4/FUL1 and MBP7/FUL2 regulate ethylene-independent aspects of fruit ripening. Plant Cell 24:4437-4451.

Beying N, Schmidt, C, Pacher M, Houben A, Puchta H (2020). CRISPR–Cas9-mediated induction of heritable chromosomal translocations in Arabidopsis. Nature Plants 6:638-645.

Blando F, Berland H, Maiorano G, Durante M, Mazzucato A, Picarella ME, … Andersen OM (2019). Nutraceutical characterization of anthocyanin-rich fruits produced by “Sun Black” tomato line. Frontiers in Nutrition 6:133.

Bock R, Knoop V (2012). Genomics of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Springer Science & Business Media.

Bota J, Conesa MA, Ochogavia JM, Medrano H, Francis DM, Cifre J (2014). Characterization of a landrace collection for Tomatiga de Ramellet (Solanum lycopersicum L.) from the Balearic Islands. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 61:1131-1146.

Braatz J, Harloff HJ, Mascher M, Stein N, Himmelbach A, Jung C (2017). CRISPR-Cas9 targeted mutagenesis leads to simultaneous modification of different homoeologous gene copies in polyploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Plant Physiology 174:935-942.

Brooks C, Nekrasov V, Lippman ZB, Van EJ (2014). Efficient gene editing in tomato in the first generation using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated9 system. Plant Physiology 166:1292-1297.

Bruder MR, Pyne ME, Moo Young M, Chung DA, Chou CP (2016). Extending CRISPR-Cas9 technology from genome editing to transcriptional engineering in Clostridium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82:6109-6119.

Brunner S, Fengler K, Morgante M, Tingey S, Rafalski A (2005). Evolution of DNA sequence nonhomologies among maize inbreeds. Plant Cell 17:343-360.

Bull SE, Seung D, Chanez C, Mehta D, Kuon JE, Truernit E, … Gruissem W (2018). Accelerated ex situ breeding of GBSS-and PTST1-edited cassava for modified starch. Science Advances 4:eaat6086.

Butler NM, Baltes NJ, Voytas DF, Douches DS (2016). Geminivirus-mediated genome editing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) using sequence-specific nucleases. Frontiers in Plant Science 7:1045.

Butt H, Eid A, Ali Z, Atia MAM, Mokhtar MM (2017). Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing using a chimeric single-guide RNA molecule. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:1441.

Butt H, Rao GS, Sedeek K, Aman R, Kamel R, Mahfouz M (2020). Engineering herbicide resistance via prime editing in rice. Plant Biotechnology Journal 18:2370-2372.

Cai JH, Chen T, Wang Y, Qin GZ, Tian SP (2020). SlREM1 triggers cell death by activating an oxidative burst and other regulators. Plant Physiology 183:717-732.

Cai P, Gao JQ, Zhou YJ (2019). CRISPR-mediated genome editing in non-conventional yeasts for biotechnological applications. Microbial Cell Factories 18:63.

Cantu D, Vicente AR, Greve LC, Dewey FM, Bennett AB, Labavitch JM, Powell ALT (2008). The intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science United State America 105:859-864.

Cao H, Chen J, Yue M, Xu C, Jian W, Liu Y, Song B, Gao Y, Cheng Y, Li Z (2020). Tomato transcriptional repressor MYB70 directly regulates ethylene-dependent fruit ripening. Plant Journal 104:1568-1581.

Castel B, Tomlinson L, Locci F, Yang Y, Jones JDG (2019). Optimization of T-DNA architecture for Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in Arabidopsis. PLoS One 14:e0204778.

Cebrian SA, Davies B (2017). CRISPR-Cas orthologues and variants: optimizing the repertoire, specificity and delivery of genome engineering tools. Mammalian Genome 28:247-261.

Cermak T, Baltes NJ, Cegan R, Zhang Y, Voytas DF (2015). High-frequency, precise modification of the tomato genome. Genome Biology 16:232.

Cermák T, Baltes NJ, Cegan R, Zhang Y, Voytas DF (2015). High-frequency, precise modification of the ˇtomato genome. Genome Biology 16:232.

Cermák T, Curtin SJ, Gil-Humanes J, Cegan R, Kono TJY (2017). A multipurpose toolkit to enable ˇadvanced genome engineering in plants. Plant Cell 29:1196-217.

Chandrasekaran J, Brumin M, Wolf D, Leibman D, Klap C (2016). Development of broad virus resistance in non-transgenic cucumber using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Molecular Plant Pathology 17:1140-5641.

Chang ZY, Chen ZF, Wang N, Xie G, Lu JW, Yan W, … Deng XW (2016). Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene. Proceeding of the National Acadmy of Science United State America 113:14145-14150.

Char SN, Neelakandan AK, Nahampun H (2017). An agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize. Plant Biotechnology Journal 15(2):257-268.

Chen B, Gilbert Luke A, Cimini Beth A, Schnitzbauer J, Zhang W (2013). Dynamic imaging of genomic loci in living human cells by an optimized CRISPR/Cas system. Cell 155:1479-1491.

Chen F, Alphonse M, Liu Q (2020a). Strategies for nonviral nanoparticle-based delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics. WIRES Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 12:e1609.

Chen K, Wang Y, Zhang R, Zhang H, Gao C (2019). CRISPR/Cas genome editing and precision plant breeding in agriculture. Annual Review of Plant Biology 70:667-697.

Chen LZ, Li W, Katin-Grazzini L, Ding J, Gu XB, Li YJ, … Li Y (2018). A method for the production and expedient screening of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutant plants. Horticultural Research 5:13.

Chen T, Qin GZ, Tian SP (2020b). Regulatory network of fruit ripening: current understanding and future challenges. New Phytologist 228:1219-1226.

Chen YY, Wang ZP, Ni HW, Xu Y, Chen QJ, Jiang LJ (2017). CRISPR/Cas9-mediated base-editing system efficiently generates gain-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis. Science China Life Science 60:520-3478.

Cho JS, Choi KR, Prabowo PS, Shin JH, Yang D, Jang J (2017). CRISPR/Cas9-coupled recombineering for metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Metabolic Engineering 42:157-167.

Christian M, Cermák T, Doyle EL, Schmidt C, Zhang F (2010). Targeting DNA double-strand ˇbreaks with TAL effector nucleases. Genetics 186:757-761.

Chuai GH, Wang QL, Liu Q (2017). In silico meets in vivo: towards computational CRISPR-based sgRNA design. Trends in Biotechnology 35:12-21.

Chung MY, Vrebalov J, Alba R, Lee J, McQuinn R, Chung JD, Klein P, Giovannoni J (2010). A tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) APETALA2/ERF gene, SlAP2a, is a negative regulator of fruit ripening. Plant Journal 64:936-947.

Civán P, Brown TA (2017). Origin of rice (Oryza sativa L.) domestication genes. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 64:1125-1132.

Cong L, Ran FA, Cox D, Lin S, Barretto R, Habib N (2013). Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems. Science 339:819-823.

Cooper M, Gho C, Leafgren R, Tang T, Messina C (2014). Breeding drought-tolerant maize hybrids for the US corn-belt: discovery to product. Journal of Experimental Botany 65(21):6191-6204.

Cox DBT, Gootenberg JS, Abudayyeh OO, Franklin B, Kellner MJ (2017). RNA editing with CRISPR-Cas13. Science 358:1019-1027.

Crook NC, Schmitz AC, Alper HS (2014). Optimization of a yeast RNA interference system for controlling gene expression and enabling rapid metabolic engineering. American Chemical Society Synthetic Biology 3:307-313.

Cunningham FJ, Goh NS, Demirer GS, Matos JL, Landry MP (2018). Nanoparticle-mediated delivery towards advancing plant genetic engineering. Trends in Biotechnology 36:P882-P897.

Dahan MT, Filler HS, Melamed BC, Bocobza S, Czosnek H, Aharoni A, Levy AA (2018). Efficient in planta gene targeting in tomato using geminiviral replicons and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Plant Journal 95:5-16.

Dai Z, Zhang S, Yang Q, Zhang W, Qian X, Dong W (2018). Genetic tool development and systemic regulation in biosynthetic technology. Biofuels 11:152.

Danilo B, Perrot L, Mara K, Botton E, Nogue F, Mazier M (2019). Efficient and transgene-free gene targeting using Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tomato. Plant Cell Reports 38:459-462.

David B, Wenyan J, Poulami S, Ann H, Feng Z, Marraffini LA (2013). Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered CRISPR-Cas system. Nucleic Acids Research 41:7429-7437.

De T, Thomazella DP, Brail Q, Dahlbeck D, Staskawicz B (2016). CRISPR-Cas9 mediated mutagenesis of a DMR6 ortholog in tomato confers broad-spectrum disease resistance. BioRxiv 064824.

Debernardi JM, Tricoli DM, Ercoli MF, Hayta S, Ronald P, Palatnik JF, Dubcovsky J (2020). A GRF-GIF chimeric protein improves the regeneration efficiency of transgenic plants. Nature Biotechnology 38:1274-1279.

Decaestecker W, Buono RA, Pfeiffer ML, Vangheluwe N, Jourquin J, Karimi M, … Jacobs TB (2019). CRISPR-TSKO: a technique for efficient mutagenesis in specific cell types, tissues, or organs in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 31:2868-2887.

Demirer GS, Zhang H, Goh NS, González-Grandío E, Landry MP (2019). Carbon nanotube–mediated DNA delivery without transgene integration in intact plants. Nature Protocols 14:2954-2971.

Demirer GS, Zhang H, Matos JL, Goh N, Cunningham F (2018). High aspect ratio nanomaterials enable delivery of functional genetic material without DNA integration in mature plants. BioRxiv 179549.

Deng L, Wang H, Sun CL, Li Q, Jiang HL, Du MM, … Li CY (2018). Efficient generation of pink-fruited tomatoes using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Journal of Genetics and Genomics 45:51-54.

Devereux S, Bene C, Hoddinott J (2020). Conceptualizing COVID-19’s impacts on household food security. Food Security 12:769-772.

Dicarlo JE, Norville JE, Prashant M, Xavier R, John A, Church GM (2013). Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems. Nucleic Acids Research 41:4336-4343.

Dominguez AA, Lim WA, Qi LS (2015). Beyond editing: repurposing CRISPR-Cas9 for precision genome regulation and interrogation. Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology 17:5-15.

Dong L, Li L, Liu C, Liu C, Shuaifeng G (2018). Genome editing and double fluorescence proteins enable robust maternal haploid induction and identification in maize. Molecular Plant 11:P1214-P1217.

Dong TT, Hu ZL, Deng L, Wang Y, Zhu MK, Zhang JL, Chen GP (2013). A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening. Plant Physiology 163:1026-1036.

Donohoue PD, Barrangou R, May AP (2017). Advances in industrial biotechnology using CRISPR-Cas systems. Trends in Biotechnology 36:134-146.

Doyle C, Higginbottom K, Swift TA, Winfield M, Bellas C, Benito-Alifonso D, … Whitney HM (2019). A simple method for spray-on gene editing in planta. BioRxiv 805036.

Dreissig S, Schiml S, Schindele P, Weiss O, Rutten T (2017). Live-cell CRISPR imaging in plants reveals dynamic telomere movements. Plant Journal 91:565-573.

Endo M, Mikami M, Toki S (2016). Biallelic gene targeting in rice. Plant Physiology 170:667-677.

Esvelt KM, Smidler AL, Catteruccia F, Church GM (2014). Concerning RNA-guided gene drives for the alteration of wild populations. eLife 3:e03401.

Fahad S, Bajwa AA, Nazir U, Anjum SA, Farooq A, Zohaib A, … Huang J (2017). Crop production under drought and heat stress: Plant responses and management options. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:1147.

Fahad S, Bano A (2012). Effect of salicylic acid on physiological and biochemical characterization of maize grown in saline area. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44:1433-1438.

Fahad S, Sönmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Arif M (2021e.) Engineering tolerance in crop plants against abiotic stress. In: Footprints of Climate Variability on Plant Diversity. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Fahad S, Sönmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Turan V (2021a). Plant growth regulators for climate-smart agriculture. In: Footprints of Climate Variability on Plant Diversity. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Fahad S, Sonmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Turan V (2021b). Climate change and plants: biodiversity, growth and interactions. In: Footprints of Climate Variability on Plant Diversity. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Fahad S, Sonmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Turan V (2021c). Developing climate resilient crops: improving global food security and safety. In: Footprints of Climate Variability on Plant Diversity. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Fahad S, Sönmez O, Turan V, Adnan M, Saud S, Wu C, Wang D (2021d). Sustainable soil and land management and climate change. In: Footprints of Climate Variability on Plant Diversity. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Farah R, Muhammad R, Muhammad SA, Tahira Y, Muhammad AA, Maryam A, … Fahad S (2020). Alternative and non-conventional soil and crop management strategies for increasing water use efficiency. In Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 323-338.

Fazli W, Muhmmad S, Amjad A, Fahad S, Muhammad A, Muhammad N, … Muhammad A (2020). Plant-microbes interactions and functions in changing climate. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 397-420.

Feng Z, Mao Y, Xu N, Zhang B, Wei P (2014). Multigeneration analysis reveals the inheritance, specificity, and patterns of CRISPR/Cas-induced gene modifications in Arabidopsis. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science 111:4632.

Fu Y, Foden JA, Khayter C, Maeder ML, Reyon D, Joung JK, Sander JD (2013). High-frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR-Cas nucleases in human cells. Nature Biotechnology 31:822-826.

Gallego BJ, Gardiner J, Liu W, Papikian A, Ghoshal B (2018). Targeted DNA demethylation of the Arabidopsis genome using the human TET1 catalytic domain. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science 115:E2125-E2134.

Gao C (2018). The future of CRISPR technologies in agriculture. Nature Review and Molecular Cell Biology 19:275-276.

Gao L, Cox DBT, Yan WX, Manteiga JC, Schneider MW (2017). Engineered Cpf1 variants with altered PAM specificities. Nature Biotechnology 35:789-92.

Gao X, Chen J, Dai X, Zhang D, Zhao Y (2016). An effective strategy for reliably isolating heritable and Cas9-free Arabidopsis mutants generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Plant Physiology 171:1794-800.

Gao Y, Zhao Y (2013). Self-processing of ribozyme-flanked RNAs into guide RNAs in vitro and in vivo for CRISPR-mediated genome editing. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 56:343-349.

Gasiunas G, Barrangou R, Horvath P, Siksnys V (2012). Cas9-crRNA ribonucleoprotein complex mediates specific DNA cleavage for adaptive immunity in bacteria. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science 109:E2579-E2586.

Gopakumar L, Bernard NO, Donato V (2020). Soil microarthropods and nutrient cycling. In: Environment, Climate Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 453-472.

Graham DB, Root DE (2015). Resources for the design of CRISPR gene editing experiments. Genome Biology 16:260.

Grünewald J, Zhou R, Garcia SP, Iyer S, Lareau CA, Aryee MJ, Joung JK (2019). Transcriptome-wide off-target RNA editing induced by CRISPR-guided DNA base editors. Nature 569:433-437.

Hafiz MH, Farhat A, Ashfaq A, Hafiz FB, Wajid F, Carol Jo W, … Gerrit H (2020a). Predicting kernel growth of maize under controlled water and nitrogen applications. International Journal of Plant Production.

Hafiz MH, Farhat A, Shafqat S, Fahad S, Artemi C, Wajid F, … Hafiz FB (2018). Offsetting land degradation through nitrogen and water management during maize cultivation under arid conditions. Land Degradation and Development 1-10.

Hafiz MH, Wajid F, Farhat A, Fahad S, Shafqat S, Wajid N, Hafiz FB (2016). Maize plant nitrogen uptake dynamics at limited irrigation water and nitrogen. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(3):2549-2557.

Hahn F, Nekrasov V (2019). CRISPR/Cas precision: Do we need to worry about off-targeting in plants? Plant Cell Report 38:437-441.

Hamada H, Linghu Q, Nagira Y, Miki R, Taoka N, Imai R (2017). An in planta biolistic method for stable wheat transformation. Science Report 7:11443.

Hesham FA, Fahad S (2020). Melatonin application enhances biochar efficiency for drought tolerance in maize varieties: Modifications in physio-biochemical machinery. Agronomy Journal 112(4):1-22.

Huang K, Rieseberg LH (2020). Frequency, origins, and evolutionary role of chromosomal inversions in plants. Frontier Plant Science 11:296.

Huang TK, Puchta H (2019). CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene targeting in plants: finally, a turn for the better for homologous recombination. Plant Cell Report 38:443-453.

Huq ME, Shoeb AZM, Hossain MA, Fahad S, Kamruzzaman MM, Javed A, ... Sarven MS (2020). Measuring vulnerability to environmental hazards: qualitative to quantitative. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer, Cham, pp 421-452.

Ibrar K, Aneela R, Khola Z, Urooba N, Sana B, Rabia S, Ishtiaq H, Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Salvatore M (2020). Microbes and environment: global warming reverting the frozen zombies. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 607-634.

Jones T (2019). Maize transformation using the morphogenic genes Baby boom and Wuschel2. Methods in Molecular Biology 1864:81-93.

Jiang Y, Chen B, Duan C, Sun B, yang J, Yang S (2015). Multigene editing in the Escherichia coli genome via the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81(7):2506-2514.

Kamarn M, Wenwen C, Irshad A, Xiangping M, Xudong Z, Wennan S, … Tiening L (2017). Effect of paclobutrazol, a potential growth regulator on stalk mechanical strength, lignin accumulation and its relation with lodging resistance of maize. Plant Growth Regulation 84:317-332.

Khan MS, Basnet R, Islam SA, Shu Q (2019). Mutational analysis of OsPLDα1 reveals its involvement in phytic acid biosynthesis in rice grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 67:11436-11443.

Kleinstiver BP, Pattanayak V, Prew MS, Tsai SQ, Nguyen NT, Zheng Z, Joung JK (2016). High-fidelity CRISPR–Cas9 nucleases with no detectable genome-wide off-target effects. Nature 529:490-495.

Lee K, Wang K (2020). Level up to chromosome restructuring. Nature Plants 6:600-601.

Lew TTS, Park M, Wang Y, Gordiichuk P, Yeap WC, Mohd Rais SK, Kulaveerasingam H, Strano MS (2020). Nanocarriers for transgene expression in pollen as a plant biotechnology tool. ACS Materials Letters 2:1057-1066.

Li J, Manghwar H, Sun L, Wang P, Wang G, Sheng H, … Rui H (201)9). Whole-genome sequencing reveals rare off-target mutations and considerable inherent genetic or/and somaclonal variations in CRISPR/Cas9-edited cotton plants. Plant Biotechnology Journal 17:858-868.

Liu J (2020). Gapless assembly of maize chromosomes using long-read technologies. Genome Biology 21:121.

Liu Q, Chen B, Wang Q, Shi X, Xiao Z, Lin J, … Fang X (2009). Carbon nanotubes as molecular transporters for walled plant cells. Nano Letters 9:1007-1010.

Liu Y (2020). Pan-genome of wild and cultivated soybeans. Cell 182:162-176.

Lowe K (2018). Rapid genotype “independent” Zea mays L. (maize) transformation via direct somatic embryogenesis. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant 54:240-252.

Lowry DB, Willis JH (2010). widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation. PLoS Biology 8:e1000500.

Mak AY (2016). Genome-wide structural variation detection by genome mapping on nanochannel arrays. Genetics 202:351-362.

Mao Y, Botella JR, Liu Y, Zhu JK (2019). Gene editing in plants: Progress and challenges. National Science Review 6:421-437.

Md Jakir H, Allah B (2020). Development and applications of transplastomic plants: A way towards eco-friendly agriculture. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 285-322.

Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar, Amna F, Amna B, Barira Z, Xitong Z, Ling-Ling C (2020). Effectiveness of conventional crop improvement strategies vs. omics. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 253-284.

Negrotto D, Jolley M, Beer S, Wenck AR, Hansen G (2000). The use of phosphomannose isomerase as a selectable marker to recover transgenic maize plants (Zea mays L.) via agrobacterium transformation. Plant Cell Report 19(8):798-803.

Ou S (2020). Effect of sequence depth and length in long-read assembly of the maize inbred NC358. Nature Communications 11:2288.

Parisi C, Tillie P, Rodríguez CE (2016). The global pipeline of GM crops out to 2020. Nature Biotechnology 34:31-36.

Puchta H (2005). The repair of double-strand breaks in plants: mechanisms and consequences for genome evolution. Journal Experimental Botany 56:1-14.

Rasheed A, Ilyas M, Khan TN, Nawab NN, Ahmed I, Hussain MM, Khan AA, Kabir N, Intikhab A (2017). Genetic Association and path coefficient analysis among yield and yield related traits in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon MILL.). International Journal of Biosciences 11(5):21-26.

Rasheed A, Ahmed S, Wassan GM, Solangi AM, Aamer M, Khanzada H, Keerio AA, Qadeer A, Israr Ahmed A (2018). Estimation of hybrid vigor for yield and yield related traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon MIll). International Journal of Bioscience 12(1):160-167.

Rasheed A, Tahir MM, Ilyas M (2019). An investigation on genetic variability for different quantitative and qualitative traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) genotypes. Gomal University Journal of Research 35(1):67-74.

Rasheed A, Fahad S, Aamer M, Hassan MU, Tahir MM, …Wu Z (2020b). Role of genetic factors in regulating cadmium uptake, transport and accumulation mechanisms and quantitative trait loci mapping in rice. a review. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 18:4005-4023.

Rasheed A, Fahad S, Hassan MU, Tahir MM, Aamer M, ...Wu Z (2020a). A review on aluminum toxicity and quantitative trait loci mapping in rice (Oryza sativa L). Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 18:3951-3961.

Rasheed A, Hassan M, Aamer M, Bian J, Xu Z, He X, …Wu Z (2020c). Iron toxicity, tolerance and quantitative trait loci mapping in rice; a review. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 18:7483-7498.

Rasheed A, Hassan MU, Fahad S, Aamer M, Batool M, Ilyas M, Shang F, Wu Z, ... Li H (2021a). Heavy metals stress and plants defense responses. In: Sustainable Soil and Land Management and Climate Change. CRC Press, pp 57-82.

Rasheed A, Wassan GM, Khanzada H, Solangi AM, Han R, Li H, … Wu Z (2021c). Identification of genomic regions at seedling related traits in response to aluminium toxicity using a new high-density genetic map in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 68:1889-1903.

Sabagh AE, Hossain A, Barutçular C, Iqbal MA, Islam MS, Fahad S, ... Erman M (2020). Consequences of salinity stress on the quality of crops and its mitigation strategies for sustainable crop production: an outlook of arid and semi-arid regions. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer, Cham, pp 503-533.

Sadam M, Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar, Ghulam M, Muhammad SK, Faiz AJ (2020). Role of biotechnology in climate resilient agriculture. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 339-366.

Sajid H, Jie H, Jing H, Shakeel A, Satyabrata N, Sumera A, … Junhua Z (2020). Rice production under climate change: adaptations and mitigating strategies. In: Environment Climate Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 659-686.

Saman S, Amna B, Bani A, Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar, Rana MA, Muhammad SK (2020). QTL mapping for abiotic stresses in cereals. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 229-252.

Senol C (2020). The effects of climate change on human behaviors. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 577-590.

Shi J, Drummond BJ, Wang H, Archibald RL, Habben JE (2016). Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins interact with ethylene receptor signaling complex, supporting a regulatory role for ARGOS in ethylene signal transduction. Plant Physiology 171(4):2783-2797.

Subhan D, Zafar-ul-Hye M, Fahad S, Saud S, Martin B, Tereza H, Rahul D (2020). Drought stress alleviation by ACC deaminase producing Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter cloacae, with and without timber waste biochar in maize. Sustainability 12:6286.

Svitashev S (2015). Targeted mutagenesis, precise gene editing, and sitespecifc gene insertion in maize using Cas9 and guide RNA. Plant Physiology 169:931-945.

Svitashev S, Schwartz C, Lenderts B, Young JK, Cigan AM (2016). Genome editing in maize directed by CRISPR–Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes. Nature Communications 7:13274.

Svitashev SK, Pawlowski WP, Makarevitch I, Plank DW, Somers DA (2002). Complex transgene locus structures implicate multiple mechanisms for plant transgene rearrangement. Plant Journal 32:433-445.

Tao Y, Zhao X, Mace E, Henry R, Jordan D (2019). Exploring and exploiting pan-genomics for crop improvement. Molecular Plant 12:156-169.

Tuncel A, Corbin KR, Ahn Jarvis J, Harris S, Hawkins E, Smedley MA, … Smith AM (2019). Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of potato starch-branching enzymes generates a range of tuber starch phenotypes. Plant Biotechnology Journal 17:2259-2271.

Unsar Naeem-U, Muhammad R, Syed HMB, Asad S, Mirza AQ, Naeem I, … Shafqat S (2020). Insect pests of cotton crop and management under climate change scenarios. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 367-396.

Vakulskas CA, Behlke MA (2019). Evaluation and reduction of CRISPR off-target cleavage events. Nucleic Acid Therapeutics 29:167-174.

Waltz E (2016). Gene-edited CRISPR mushroom escapes US regulation. Nature News 532-293.

Zhai Y, Yu K, Cai S, Hu L, Amoo O, Xu L, … Zhang C (2020). Targeted mutagenesis of BnTT8 homologs controls yellow seed coat development for effective oil production in Brassica napus L. Plant Biotechnology Journal 18:1153-1168.

Zhao X, Meng Z, Wang Y, Chen W, Sun C, Cui B, … Guo S (2017). Pollen magnetofection for genetic modification with magnetic nanoparticles as gene carriers. Nature Plants 3:956-964.

Zhao Y, Qian Q, Wang H, Huang D (2007). Hereditary behavior of bar gene cassette is complex in rice mediated by particle bombardment. Journal of Genetics and Genomics 34:824-835.

Zhong Y, Blennow A, Kofoed-Enevoldsen O, Jiang D, Hebelstrup KH (2019). Protein targeting to starch 1 is essential for starchy endosperm development in barley. Journal of Experimental Botany 70:485-496.

Zia-ur-Rehman M (2020). Environment, climate change and biodiversity. In: Environment, Climate, Plant and Vegetation Growth. Springer Publ Ltd, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature, pp 473-502.

How to Cite
GILLANI, S. F., RASHEED, A., MAJEED, Y., TARIQ, H., & YUNLING, P. (2021). Recent advancements on use of CRISPR /Cas9 in maize yield and quality improvement. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(3), 12459.
Review Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha49312459