Regulation of curcuminoids, photosynthetic abilities, total soluble sugar, and rhizome yield traits in two cultivars of turmeric (Curcuma longa) using exogenous foliar paclobutrazol

  • Daonapa CHUNGLOO National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 113 Thailand Science Park, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (TH)
  • Rujira TISARUM National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 113 Thailand Science Park, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (TH)
  • Thapanee SAMPHUMPHUANG National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 113 Thailand Science Park, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (TH)
  • Thanyaporn SOTESARITKUL National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 113 Thailand Science Park, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (TH)
  • Suriyan CHA-UM National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 113 Thailand Science Park, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (TH)
Keywords: Curcuma longa, curcuminoids, growth parameters, paclobutrazol, physiological responses, total soluble sugar

Abstract

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a member of plant growth retardants, commonly applied for growth regulation, yield improvement, and biotic and abiotic stress alleviation. However, the effects of PBZ on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.; Zingiberaceae), a rhizomatous herb, have not been well established. The objective of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the effect of PBZ on two different varieties of turmeric plants, ‘Surat Thani’ (‘URT’; high curcuminoids >5% w/w) and ‘Pichit’ (‘PJT’; low curcuminoids <3% w/w). Pseudostem height of cv. ‘PJT’ treated by 340 µM PBZ was significantly decreased by 14.82% over control, whereas it was unchanged in cv. ‘URT’. Interestingly, leaf greenness (SPAD value), maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII) in cv. ‘PJT’ treated by 340 µM PBZ were significantly elevated by 1.47, 1.28 and 1.23 folds, over control respectively. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in cv. ‘PJT’ declined by 38.58% (340 µM PBZ) over control, as a result of low levels of total soluble sugars (TSS; 127.8 mg g-1 DW) in turmeric rhizome. A positive relation between photosynthetic abilities and aerial fresh weight was demonstrated. In addition, a negative relationship between TSS and total curcuminoids was evidently found (R2 = 0.4524). Curcuminoids yield in turmeric rhizomes significantly dropped, depending on the degree of exogenous foliar PBZ applications. In summary, cv. PJT was found to be very sensitive to PBZ application, whereas rhizome yield and growth traits and high amount of curcuminoids were retained in cv. ‘URT’. Plant growth retention in turmeric cv. ‘URT’ using 170 mM PBZ foliar spray without negative effects on rhizome biomass and total curcuminoids content was demonstrated.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Akamine H, Hossain MA, Ishimine Y, Yogi K, Hokama K, Iraha Y, Aniya Y (2007). Effects of application of N, P and K alone or in combination on growth, yield and curcumin content of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Plant Production Science 10:151‒154. https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.10.151

Akram M, Shahab-Uddin AA, Usmanghani KHAN, Hannan ABDUL, Mohiuddin E, Asif M (2010). Curcuma longa and curcumin: A review article. Romanian Journal of Biology - Plant Biology 55:65-70.

Anandaraj M, Sudharshan MR (2011). Cardamom, ginger and turmeric. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)-Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production. EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, UK.

Arzani K, Bahadori F, Piri S (2009). Paclobutrazol reduces vegetative growth and enhances flowering and fruiting of mature ‘JH Hale’ and ‘Red Skin’ peach trees. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology 50:84-93.

Assuero SG, Lorenzo M, Pérez Ramírez NM, Velázquez LM, Tognetti JA (2012). Tillering promotion by paclobutrazol in wheat and its relationship with plant carbohydrate status. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 55:347-358. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.2012.706223

Boontiang K, Chutichudet B, Chutichudet P (2019). Effect of paclobutrazol on growth and development of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. grown off-season. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology 27:1-8. https://doi.org/10.14456/nujst.2019.1

Brar JS (2010). Influence of paclobutrazol and ethephon on vegetative growth of guava (Psidium guajava L.) plants at different spacing. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 2:110-113. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb234649

Carvalho-Zanão MP, Zanão Júnior LA, Grossi JAS, Pereira N (2018). Potted rose cultivars with paclobutrazol drench applications. Ciência Rural 48:e20161002. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20161002

Carver ST, Arnold MA, Byrne DH, Armitage AR, Lineberger RD, King AR (2014). Growth and flowering responses of sea marigold to daminozide, paclobutrazol, or uniconazole applied as drenches or sprays. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 33:626-631. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-014-9411-7

Chandra S, Roychoudhury A (2020). Penconazole, paclobutrazol, and triacontanol in overcoming environmental stress in plants. In: Roychoudhury A, Tripathi DK (Eds). Protective Chemical Agents in the Amelioration of Plant Abiotic Stress: Biochemical and Molecular Perspectives, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp 510-534.

Cha-um S, Supaibulwatana K, Kirdmanee C (2007). Glycinebetaine accumulation, physiological characterizations and growth efficiency in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive lines of indica rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp indica) in response to salt stress. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 193:157-166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2007.00251.x

Chintakovid N, Tisarum R, Samphumphuang T, Sotesaritkul T, Cha-Um S (2021a). In vitro acclimatization of Curcuma longa under controlled iso-osmotic conditions. Plant Biotechnology 38:37-46. https://doi.org/10.5511/plantbiotechnology.20.1021a

Chintakovid N, Tisarum R, Samphumphuang T, Sotesaritkul T, Cha-um S (2021b). Evaluation on curcuminoids-related genes, curcuminoids, physiological adaptation and growth performances of Curcuma longa L. under water deficit and controlled temperature in glasshouse. Protoplasma. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01670-w

Choudhary AK, Rahi S (2018). Organic cultivation of high yielding turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivars: A viable alternative to enhance rhizome productivity, profitability, quality and resource-use efficiency in monkey–menace areas of north-western Himalayas. Industrial Crops and Products 124:495-504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.07.069

Corr BE, Widmer RE (1991). Paclobutrazol, gibberellic acid, and rhizome size affect growth and flowering of Zantedeschia. HortScience 26:133-135. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.26.2.133

de Araújo FF, de Sousa Santos MN, de Araújo NO, da Silva TP, Costa LC, Finger FL (2020). Growth and dry matter partitioning of potato influenced by paclobutrazol applied to seed tuber. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas 14 https://doi.org/10.17584/rcch.2020v14i1.10357

Deepa K, Sheeja TE, Rosana OB, Srinivasan V, Krishnamurthy KS, Sasikumar B (2017). Highly conserved sequence of ClPKS11 encodes a novel polyketide synthase involved in curcumin biosynthesis in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Industrial Crops and Products 97:229-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.12.003

Dewi K, Darussalam (2018). Effect of paclobutrazol and cytokinin on growth and source–sink relationship during grain filling of black rice (Oryza sativa L. “Cempo Ireng”). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 23:507-515. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-018-0397-1

Esmaielpour B, Hokmalipour S, Jalilvand P, Salimi G (2011). The investigation of paclobutrazol effects on growth and yield of two potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars under different plant density. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 9:289-294.

França CDFM, da Costa LC, Ribeiro WS, Mendes TDC, de Sousa Santos MN, Finger FL (2017). Evaluation of paclobutrazol application method on quality characteristics of ornamental pepper. Ornamental Horticulture 23:307-310. https://doi.org/10.14295/oh.v23i3.1074

Frank N, Knauft J, Amelung F, Nair J, Wesch H, Bartsch H (2003). No prevention of liver and kidney tumors in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats by dietary curcumin, but inhibition at other sites and of metastases. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 523-524:127-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00328-7

Gliožeris S, Tamošiūnas A, Štuopytė L (2007). Effect of some growth regulators on chlorophyll fluorescence in Viola× wittrockiana ‘Wesel Ice’. Biologija 53:24-27.

Gupta SC, Kismali G, Aggarwal BB (2013). Curcumin, a component of turmeric: from farm to pharmacy. Biofactors 39:2-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.1079

Gupta SC, Patchva S, Koh W, Aggarwal BB (2012). Discovery of curcumin, a component of golden spice, and its miraculous biological activities. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 39:283-299. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2011.05648.x

Harmath J, Schmidt G, Forrai M, Szabó V (2014). Influence of some growth retardants on growth, transpiration rate and CO2 fixation of Caryopteris incana ‘Heavenly Blue’. Folia Oecologica 41:24-33.

Hunter DM, Proctor JT (1994). Paclobutrazol reduces photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake rate in grapevines. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119:486-491. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.119.3.486

Hussain F, Bronson KF, Peng S (2000). Use of chlorophyll meter sufficiency indices for nitrogen management of irrigated rice in Asia. Agronomy Journal 92:875‒879. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2000.925875x

Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Gomathinayagam M, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R (2007). Responses of antioxidant potentials in Dioscorea rotundata Poir. following paclobutrazol drenching. Comptes Rendus Biologies 330:798-805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2007.08.010

Jungklang J, Saengnil K., Uthaibutra J (2017). Effects of water-deficit stress and paclobutrazol on growth, relative water content, electrolyte leakage, proline content and some antioxidant changes in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. cv. Chiang Mai Pink. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 24:1505-1512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.09.017

Kamran M, Cui W, Ahmad I, Meng X, Zhang X, Su W, Chen J, Ahmad S, Fahad S, Han Q, Liu T (2018a). Effect of paclobutrazol, a potential growth regulator on stalk mechanical strength, lignin accumulation and its relation with lodging resistance of maize. Plant Growth Regulation 84:317-332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-017-0342-8

Kamran M, Ahmad I, Wu X, Liu T, Ding R, Han Q (2018b). Application of paclobutrazol: a strategy for inducing lodging resistance of wheat through mediation of plant height, stem physical strength, and lignin biosynthesis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25:29366-29378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2965-3

Kamran M, Wennan S, Ahmad I, Xiangping M, Wenwen C, Xudong Z, S… Tiening L (2018c). Application of paclobutrazol affect maize grain yield by regulating root morphological and physiological characteristics under a semi-arid region. Scientific Reports 8:4818. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23166-z

Kamran M, Ahmad S, Ahmad I, Hussain I, Meng X, Zhang X, … Han Q (2020). Paclobutrazol application favors yield improvement of maize under semiarid regions by delaying leaf senescence and regulating photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant system during grain-filling stage. Agronomy 10:187. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10020187

Karkacier M, Erbas M, Uslu MK, Aksu M (2003). Comparison of different extraction and detection methods for sugars using amino-bonded phase HPLC. Journal of Chromatographic Science 41:331-333. https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/41.6.331

Kocaadam B, Şanlier N (2017). Curcumin, an active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and its effects on health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57:2889-2895. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1077195

Krug BA, Whipker BE, McCall I (2007). Caladium growth control with flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole. HortTechnology 17:368-370. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.17.3.368

Kumar S, Ghatty S, Satyanarayana J, Guha A, Chaitanya BSK, Reddy AR (2012). Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown Camelina sativa L. Crantz. BMC Research Notes 5:137. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-137

Li S, Yuan W, Deng G, Wang P, Yang P, Aggarwal B (2011). Chemical composition and product quality control of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Pharmaceutical Crops 2:28-54.

Loggini B, Scartazza A, Brugnoli E, Navari-Izzo F (1999). Antioxidative defense system, pigment composition, and photosynthetic efficiency in two wheat cultivars subjected to drought. Plant Physiology 119:1091-1100. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.119.3.1091

Martínez-Fuentes A, Mesejo C, Muñoz-Fambuena N, Reig C, González-Mas MC, Iglesias DJ, … Agustí M (2013). Fruit load restricts the flowering promotion effect of paclobutrazol in alternate bearing Citrus spp. Scientia Horticulturae 151:122-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.12.014

Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000). Chlorophyll fluorescence – a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany 51:659-668. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.345.659

Medina R, Burgos A, Difranco V, Mroginski L, Cenóz P (2012). Effects of chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Rocha) plant growth and tuberous root quality. AgriScientia 29:51-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.31047/1668.298x.v29.n1.2799

Meena RK, Adiga JD, Nayak MG, Saroj PL, Kalaivanan D (2014). Effect of paclobutrazol on growth and yield of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). Vegetos 27:11-16. https://doi.org/10.5958/j.2229-4473.27.1.003

Muangkaewngam A, Te-chato S (2018). Morphological and physiological responses of torch ginger [Etlingera elatior (Jack) RM Smith] to paclobutrazol application. International Journal of Agricultural Technology 14:559-570.

Navarro A, Sanchez-Blanco MJ, Bañon S (2007). Influence of paclobutrazol on water consumption and plant performance of Arbutus unedo seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae 111:133-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.10.014

Pal S, Zhao J, Khan A, Yadav NS, Batushansky A, Barak S, Rewald B, Lazarovitch N, Rachmilevitch S (2016). Paclobutrazol induces tolerance in tomato to deficit irrigation through diversified effects on plant morphology, physiology and metabolism. Scientific Reports 6:39321. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep39321

Pandey AK, Singh SK, Singh P, Pandey S (2018). Influence of doses and application methods of paclobutrazol in litchi on leaf gaseous exchange and biochemical attributes. International Journal of Innovative Horticulture 7:104-113

Phasri W, Neera S, Jogloy S, Hongpakdee P (2019). Effect of paclobutrazol application on growth, flowering and inulin content of ornamental Helianthus tuberosus L. Acta Horticulturae 1237:161-168. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2019.1237.21

Pothitirat W, Gritsanapan W (2007). Variability of curcuminoids: antioxidative components in ethanolic turmeric extract determined by UV and HPLC methods. Acta Horticulturae 786:175-184. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.786.19

Prasad S, Gupta SC, Tyagi AK, Aggarwal BB (2014). Curcumin, a component of golden spice: from bedside to bench and back. Biotechnology Advances 32:1053-1064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.04.004

Ravindran PN (2007). Turmeric: The genus Curcuma. CRC Press, London.

Rodrigues LDA, de Castro EM, Pereira FJ, Maluleque IF, Barbosa JPRAD, Rosado SDS (2016). Effects of paclobutrazol on leaf anatomy and gas exchange of Toona ciliata clones. Australian Forestry 79:241-247. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049158.2016.1235476

Roseli ANM, Ying TF, Ramlan MF (2012). Morphological and physiological response of Syzygium myrtifolium (Roxb.) Walp. to paclobutrazol. Sains Malaysiana 41:1187-1192.

Rusmin D, Suhartanto MR, Ilyas S, Manohara D, Widajati E (2015). Production and quality improvement of ginger seed rhizome by paclobutrazol applications. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research 21:132-146.

Sandeep IS, Das S, Nasim N, Mishra A, Acharya L, Joshi RK, Nayak S, Mohanty S (2017). Differential expression of CURS gene during various growth stages, climatic condition and soil nutrients in turmeric (Curcuma longa): Towards site specific cultivation for high curcumin yield. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 118:348-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.07.001

Sarmiento MJ, Kuehny JS (2003). Efficacy of paclobutrazol and gibberellin4+7 on growth and flowering of three curcuma species. HortTechnology 13:493-496. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.13.3.0493

Seesangboon A, Gruneck L, Pokawattana T, Eungwanichayapant PD, Tovaranonte J, Popluechai S (2018). Transcriptome analysis of Jatropha curcas L. flower buds responded to the paclobutrazol treatment. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 127:276-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.035

Senoo S, Isoda A (2003). Effects of paclobutrazol on podding and photosynthetic characteristics in peanut. Plant Production Science 6:190-194. https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.6.190

Setia RC, Bhathal G, Setia N (1995). Influence of paclobutrazol on growth and yield of Brassica carinata A. Br. Plant Growth Regulation 16:121-127. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00029532

Sharma RA, Gescher AJ, Steward WP (2005). Curcumin: the story so far. European Journal of Cancer 41:1955-1968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2005.05.009

Sinniah RU, Wahyuni S, Syahputra BSA, Gantait S (2012). A potential retardant for lodging resistance in direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 92:13-18. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps2011-089

Smith MR, Rao IM, Merchant A (2018). Source-sink relationships in crop plants and their influence on yield development and nutritional quality. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:1889. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01889

Soumya PR, Kumar P, Pal M (2017). Paclobutrazol: a novel plant growth regulator and multi-stress ameliorant. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 22:267-278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-017-0316-x

Sun P, Tong J, Li X (2020). Evaluation of the effects of paclobutrazol and cultivation years on saponins in Ophiopogon japonicus using UPLC-ELSD. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry 2020:5974130. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5974130

Tekalign T, Hammes PS (2004). Response of potato grown under non-inductive condition paclobutrazol: shoot growth, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, tuber yield, quality, and dormancy. Plant Growth Regulation 43:227-236. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:GROW.0000045992.98746.8d

Tekalign T, Hammes PS (2005a). Growth responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in a hot tropical lowland to applied paclobutrazol: 1. Shoot attributes, assimilate production and allocation. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 33:35-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2005.9514328

Tekalign T, Hammes PS (2005b). Growth responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in a hot tropical lowland to applied paclobutrazol: 2. Tuber attributes. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 33:43-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2005.9514329

Upreti KK, Prasad SS, Reddy YTN, Rajeshwara AN (2014). Paclobutrazol induced changes in carbohydrates and some associated enzymes during floral initiation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Totapuri. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 19:317-323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-014-0113-8

Whipker BE, Hammer PA (1997). Efficacy of ancymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole on growth of tuberous-rooted dahlias. HortTechnology 7:269-273. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.7.3.269

Xia X, Tang Y, Wei M, Zhao D (2018). Effect of paclobutrazol application on plant photosynthetic performance and leaf greenness of herbaceous peony. Horticulturae 4:5. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4010005

Yeshitela T, Robbertse PJ, Stassen PJC (2004). Paclobutrazol suppressed vegetative growth and improved yield as well as fruit quality of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango (Mangifera indica) in Ethiopia. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 32:281-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2004.9514307

Zheng RR, Wu Y, Xia YP (2012). Chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol treatments promote carbohydrate accumulation in bulbs of Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 13:136-144. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1000425

Zhu X, Chai M, Li Y, Sun M, Zhang J, Sun G, … Shi L (2016). Global transcriptome profiling analysis of inhibitory effects of paclobutrazol on leaf growth in lily (Lilium longiflorum-Asiatic Hybrid). Frontiers in Plant Science 7:491. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00491

Published
2021-09-23
How to Cite
CHUNGLOO, D., TISARUM, R., SAMPHUMPHUANG, T., SOTESARITKUL, T., & CHA-UM, S. (2021). Regulation of curcuminoids, photosynthetic abilities, total soluble sugar, and rhizome yield traits in two cultivars of turmeric (Curcuma longa) using exogenous foliar paclobutrazol. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(3), 12445. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha49312445
Section
Research Articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nbha49312445