Response of St John’s wort (Hypericum empetrifolium) plants to cadmium (Cd) treatment in relation to substrate acidity/alkalinity
The effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth and Cd accumulation in shoots and roots St John’s wort (Hypericum empetrifolium) was studied over three months in a greenhouse. Plants were cultivated in pots containing a uniform mixture of either acid or alkaline substrate consisting of peat and perlite (1:1 v/v). The pots were arranged in a completely randomized block design within two groups (acid substrate and alkaline substrate) with four Cd treatments (0-control, 1, 2, and 5 mg Cd L-1) and six replicates per treatment. Cadmium was applied as CdSO4*8/3H2O. The total amount of Cd applied per pot was 260 ml, corresponding to 0.26, 0.52, and 1.3 mg Cd per pot for doses 1, 2, and 5 mg L-1, respectively. No visual symptoms of toxicity or nutrient deficiency, as well as no differences in plant height were observed in response to Cd application, irrespective of the growth stage or substrate. There were also no differences in height development rate between the plants grown in an acidic or alkaline substrate. Cd accumulation in shoots and roots increased with increasing concentrations of applied Cd and was higher in the acidic substrate. Thus, St John’s wort plant is a Cd accumulator, especially in an acidic environment, and this in combination with its high tolerance to Cd, makes it a suitable species to remove Cd from cadmium-contaminated sites. However, for its use in the preparation of medical products, St John’s wort must be grown in a Cd-free soil so as not to pose a risk to human health. Cd extraction by (DTPA-TEA) can be employed to predict Cd accumulation in this plant.
Akoumianakis, KA, Passam HC, Barouchas PE, Moustakas NK (2008). Effect of cadmium on yield and cadmium concentration in the edible tissue of endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.). Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 6:201-209.
Alloway BJ (1995). Cadmium. In: Alloway BJ (Ed). Heavy Metals in Soils. Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow pp 121-151.
Baker DE, Amacher MC (1982). Nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (Eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison WI, pp 323-334.
Davis PH (1988). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 2. Edinburg University Press, Edinburgh, pp 396-397.
EFSA (2012). Cadmium dietary exposure in the European population. European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal 10(1):2551. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/2551
Genchi G, Sinicropi MS, Lauria G, Carocci A, Catalano A (2020). The effects of cadmium toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(11):3782. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113782
Kim KR, Owens G, Naidu R (2009). Heavy metal distribution, bioaccessibility and phytoavailability in long-term contaminated soils from Lake Macquarie. Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 47:166-176. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR08054
Kirkham MB (2006). Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: Effect of soil factors, hyperaccumulation and amendments. Geoderma 137:19-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2006.08.024
Kitanov GM (2001). Hypericin and pseudohypericin in some Hypericum species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 29:171-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-1978(00)00032-6
Kubier A, Wilkin RT, Pichler T (2019). Cadmium in soils and groundwater: A review. Applied Geochemistry 108:1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2019.104388
Linsday WL, Norvell WA (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 31:421-428. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1978.03615995004200030009x
Macarovicova E. Kralova K, Kummerova M, Kmentova E (2004). The effect of cadmium on root growth and respiration rate of two medicinal plant species. Biologia Bratislava 59(13):211-214.
Moustakas NK, Akoumianaki-Ioannidou A, Barouchas P. (2011). The effects of cadmium and zinc interactions on the concentration of cadmium and zinc in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science 5:277-282. http://doi.www.cropj.com/moustakas_5_3_2011_277_282.pdf
Moustakas NK, Akoumianakis KA, Passam HC (2001). Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the yield of lettuce, radish and cucumber. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32:1793-1802. https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120000250
Petrakis P, Couladis M, Roussis V (2005). A method for detecting the biosystematic significance of the essential oil composition: The case of five Hellenic Hypericum L. species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 33:873-898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2005.02.002
Rieuwerts JS, Thornton I, Farago ME, Ashmore MR (1998). Factors influencing metal bioavailability in soils: preliminary investigations for the development of a critical loads approach for metals. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 10(2):61-75. https://doi.org/10.3184/095422998782775835
Salta A, Akoumianaki-Ioannidou A, Barouchas PE, Moustakas NK (2019). Effects of cadmium (Cd) on dry matter and on Cd concentration in leaves and roots of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.). Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 76(1):140-142. https://doi:10.15835/buasvmcn-hort:2018.0028
STATISTICA (1998). StatSoft, Inc. Tulsa, OK, USA.
Vokou D, Katradi K, Kokkini S (1993). Ethnobotanical survey of Zagori (Epirus, Greece), a renewed center of folk medicine in the past. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 39:187-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(93)90035-4
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.