The optimization of a conventional extraction of bioactive compounds from Cornus mas by RSM and the determination of favourability factors by GIS technique
Rich in vitamins, polyphenols, carotenoids, carbohydrates, with a high antioxidant activity, cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is one of the 65 species of Cornaceae family, fruits that are used in food industry, cosmetic industry or homeopathic medicine. The valuable bioactive compounds and the high economical potential of this tree makes suitable to be considered as a raw material to study the optimum extraction conditions in order to maximize the bioactive compounds’ concentration. In this study, the main purpose was to investigate both the favourable and restrictive conditions for Cornus mas using the GIS technique. The Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technique indicated the favourability factors for Cornus mas trees in Romania country. The response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of temperature, time and solvent concentration on the flavonoids’ (TFC) and polyphenols (TPC) concentrations and the antioxidant activity values. The maximum concentration of TPC (24.70 mg GAE/g raw material) and TFC (1.36 mg QE/g raw material) were obtained with 60% ethanol concentration at different temperature and time values. The cube model with centred faces for the Box-Behnken central composition revealed the highest value of the concentration of TAA (101.31 mg TE/g raw material) at 100% ethanol concentration, 50 °C extraction temperature and the maximum extraction time of 30 min. The most relevant variable was the solvent concentration and the obtained results suggested that the central-face cube model (86% for TPC, 97% for TFC and 95% antioxidant activity) approximated the experimental data.
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