Restorative regeneration of woody ornamental plants in the historical gardens of Peles Royal Castle, Romania
Keywords:climatic changes; garden restoration; regenerative landscape; resilient ecosystem; shrub; terraces; trees
Historical gardens’ restoration is a complex process including not only built features of the layout, but also vegetation. Climate changes, air pollution, new pests and other factors have an important impact on vegetation and make sometimes impossible to restore the garden to the original model. Therefore, vegetation restoration requires investigations, to establish the tendencies, dynamics and resilience of different species in the garden, and decisions to adopt sustainable solutions. Woody plants from Peleș Royal Castle Gardens (Sinaia, Romania) were investigated to reveal the diachronic transformations of the vegetation and to establish an objective starting point in garden restoration. Despite of decades of neglected maintenance, historical events and changes in building function, the garden has a considerable number of old valuable trees and shrubs. Woody plants located on terraces were in a significantly poorer condition compared with those planted on the lawn. Natural forest surrounding the garden and native species cultivated in the garden acted as a source of landscape regeneration. Climate changes, affecting the mountain zone, allow the cultivation of woody species of warmer climates. Results of present study will be essential for all the future decisions about woody vegetation and gardens restoration.
Alagona PS, Sandlos J, Wiersma YF (2012). Past imperfect: using historical ecology and baseline data for conservation and restoration projects in North America. Environmental Philosophy 9(1):49-70.
Arnáez J, Lana-Renault N, Lasanta T, Ruiz-Flaño P, Castroviejo J (2015). Effects of farming terraces on hydrological and geomorphological processes. A review. Catena 128:122-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.01.021
Asciuto A, Borsellino V, D’Acquisto M, Di Franco CP, Di Gesaro M, Schimmenti E (2015). Monumental trees and their existence value: The case study of an Italian natural park. Journal of Forest Science 61(2):55-61. https://doi.org/10.17221/86/2014-JFS
Bachelin L (1908). Castelul Peleș. Schiță istorică și descriptivă [Peleș Castle. Historical and descriptive sketch]. Librariei Leon Alcalay Publishing House. Bucharest.
Beldiman R (2011). Castelul Peleș, expresie a fenomenului istorist de influență germană [Peleș Castle, an expression of German historicism]. Simetria Publishing House. Bucharest.
Bengtsson J, Angelstam P, Elmqvist T, Emanuelsson U, Floke C, Ihse M, … Nyström M (2003). Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes. Ambio 23(6):389-396. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-32.6.389
Brandi C (1996). Theory of restoration (Italian original published 1963; translated in Romanian by Balaci R). Meridiane Publishing House. Bucharest.
Carneiro ARS, da Silva JM, Veras de Siqueira LM, de Figueirôa A (2012). The complexity of historic garden life conservation. In: Zancheti SM, Similä K (Eds). Measuring heritage conservation performance. ICCROM, Rome pp 33-41.
Cronon W (1993). The uses of environmental history. Environmental History Review 17(3):1-22. https://doi.org/10.2307/3984602
Cunningham A (1996). The culture of gardens. In: Jardine N, Secord JA, Spary EC (Eds). Cultures of Natural History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp 38-56.
Eurostat (2019). Culture statistics - 2019 edition. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg. https://doi.org/10.2785/118217
Gullino P, Devecchi M, Larcher F (2020). New sustainable approach for historical garden restoration: the case study of Ludwig Winter’s Gardens in Liguria Region. Acta Horticulture 1279:9-14. https://www.actahort.org/books/1279/1279_2.htm
Halbrooks MC (2005). The english garden at Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens: interpretation, analysis and documentation of a historic garden restoration. HortTechnology 15(2):196-213. https://doi.org/10.21273/horttech.15.2.0196
Haret M (1924). Castelul Peleș, monografie istorică, geografică, turistică, pitorească, descriptivă [Peleș Castle, historic, geographic, touristic, picturesque, descriptive monograph]. Cartea Românească Publishing House. Bucharest.
Hoffman MHA (2016). List of names of woody plants: international standard ENA 2016-2020. 9th Edition. Reolofarendsveen: Naktuinbouw.
ICOMOS (2021). International Council on Monuments and Sites. Retrieved 2021 February 22 from https://www.icomos.org
Ignatieva M, Melnichuk I, Cherdantseva O, Lukmazova E (2015). History and restoration of the St Petersburg Summer Garden: returning to the roots. Garden History 43(2):199-217. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24636250
Iliescu AF (2008). Cultura arborilor și arbustilor ornamentali [Culture of ornamental trees and shrubs]. Ceres Publishing House, Bucharest.
Jacques D (2014). Evolution of principles for the conservation of gardens and designed landscapes. In: Harney M (Eds). Gardens and landscapes in historic building conservation. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, United States pp 55-66.
Kapfer J, Hedl R, Jurasinski G, Kopecky M, Schei FH, Grytnes JA (2017). Resurveying historical vegetation data – opportunities and challenges. Applied Vegetation Science 20:164-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12269
Kollas C, Körner C, Randin CF (2014). Spring frost and growing season length co‐control the cold range limits of broad‐leaved trees. Journal of Biogeography 41(4):773-783. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12238
Kovář P, Bačinová H, Loula J, Fedorova D (2016). Use of terraces to mitigate the impacts of overland flow and erosion on a catchment. Plant, Soil and Environment 62(4):171-177. https://doi.org/10.17221/786/2015-PSE
Kramer K (1995). Phenotypic plasticity of the phenology of seven European tree species in relation to climatic warming. Plant, Cell and Environment 18:93-104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1995.tb00356.x
Kreyling J, Schmid S, Aas G (2015). Cold tolerance of tree species is related to the climate of their native ranges. Journal of Biogeography 42(1):156-166. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12411
Lane M (2020). Royal gardens of the world: 21 celebrated gardens from the Alhambra to Highgrove and beyond. Hachette UK.
Lasanta T, Arnáez J, Oserín M, Ortigosa LM (2001). Marginal lands and erosion in terraced fields in the Mediterranean mountains. A case study in the Camero Viejo (Northwestern Iberian System, Spain). Mountain Research and Development 21:69-76. https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021[0069:MLAEIT]2.0.CO;2
Maikhuri RK, Semwal RL, Rao KS, Singh K, Saxena KG (2000). Growth and ecological impacts of traditional agroforestry tree species in Central Himalaya, India. Agroforestry Systems 48(3):257-271. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006344812127
Mandache D (2004). Later chapters of my life: the lost memoir of Queen Marie of Romania. Sutton Publishing, Ltd. Gloucestershire.
MNP (2021). Muzeul Național Peleș [National Museum Peleș]. Retrieved 2021 February 22 from https://en.peles.ro/history
Messinger J, Güney A, Zimmermann R, Ganser B, Bachmann M, Remmele S, Aas G (2015). Cedrus libani: A promising tree species for Central European forestry facing climate change? European Journal of Forest Research 134(6):1005-1017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-015-0905-z
MNIR (2020). Muzeul Național de Istorie al României [National Museum of Romanian History] and iMAGO Romaniae. Retrieved 2020 December 22 from http://imagoromaniae.ro/imagini/carti-postale
Muffler L, Beierkuhnlein C, Aas G, Jentsch A, Schweiger AH, Zohner C, Kreyling J (2016). Distribution ranges and spring phenology explain late frost sensitivity in 170 woody plants from Northern Hemisphere. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25(9):1061-1071. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12466
Mukerji C (1997). Territorial ambitions and the gardens of Versailles. Cambridge University Press.
Nagel TA, Svoboda M, Diaci J (2006). Regeneration patterns after intermediate wind disturbance in an old-growth Fagus-Abies forest in south-eastern Slovenia. Forest Ecology and Management 226(1-3):268-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.01.039
Nagel TA, Svoboda M, Rugani T, Diaci J (2010). Gap regeneration and replacement patterns in an old-growth Fagus–Abies forest of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Plant Ecology 208(2):307-318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-009-9707-z
Novak M (2002). The artificial paradise: programme and ideology of royal gardens. In Parpola S, Whiting RM (Eds). Sex and gender in the ancient Near East. Helsinki pp 443-460.
Paluch JG (2005). The influence of the spatial pattern of trees on forest floor vegetation and silver fir (Abies alba Mill) regeneration in uneven-aged forests. Forest Ecology and Management 205:283-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.10.010
Pătru-Stupariu I, Stupariu MS, Cuculici R, Huzui A (2011). Understanding landscape change using historical maps. Case study Sinaia, Romania. Journal of Maps 7(1):206-220. https://doi.org/10.4113/jom.2011.1151
PS (2021). Primaria Sinaia [Sinaia City Hall]. Retrieved 2021 February 22 from https://www.primaria-sinaia.ro
Qihua R, Xiuxiu C, Yanyan H, Sheng Y, Jihui G (2020). Impacts of terracing on hydrological processes: A case study from the Loess Plateau of China. Journal of Hydrology 588:125045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125045
Sales J (1995). Garden restoration past and present. Garden History 23(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.2307/1587009
Santos JD, Álvarez CM (2020). Atrio de la Alhambra. Una reflexión sobre el jardín moderno en la conservatión del monumento Nazarí y su entorno [Atrium of the Alhambra. A reflection on the modern gardens in the conservation of the Nasrid monument and its surroundings]. Proyeto, Progreso, Arquitectura 22:138-157. http:dx.doi.org//10.12795/ppa.2020.i22.08
Sârbu A, Anastasiu P, Smarandache D (2014). Potential impact of climate change on alpine habitats from Bucegi Natural Park, Romania. In Rannow S, Neubert M (Eds). Managing protected areas in central and eastern Europe under climate change. Dordrecht: Springer pp 259-267. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7960-0
Scheifinger H, Menzel A, Koch E, Peter C (2003). Trends of spring time frost events and phenological dates in Central Europe. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 74(1-2):41-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-002-0704-6
Shellenhamer J (2004). The archaeology and restoration of the William Paca Garden, Annapolis, Maryland: 1966-1990. MSc Dissertation, University of Maryland. https://doi.org/10.13016/i1yc-bqvp
Shuman JK, Shugart HH, O’Halloran TL (2011). Sensitivity of Siberian larch forests to climate change. Global Change Biology 17(7):2370-2384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02417.x
Siriri D, Ong CK, Wilson J, Boffa JM, Black CR (2010). Tree species and pruning regime affect crop yield on bench terraces in SW Uganda. Agroforestry systems 78(1):65-77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-009-9215-0
Stan CI (2003). Regele Ferdinand I, “Întregitorul”: 1914-1927 [King Ferdinand I, “The Unifier”: 1914-1927]. Paideia Publishing House, Bucharest.
Surugiu C, Surugiu MR, Frent C, Breda Z (2011). Effects of climate change on Romanian Mountain Tourism: are they positive or mostly negative. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation 2(1):42-71.
Thurm EA, Hernandez L, Baltensweiler A, Ayan S, Rasztovits E, Bielak K, … Falk W (2018). Alternative tree species under climate warming in managed European forest. Forest Ecology and Management 430:485-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.028
Van der Sluis T, Kizos T, Pedroli B (2014). Landscape change in Mediterranean farmlands: impacts of land abandonment on cultivation terraces in Portofino (Italy) and Lesvos (Greece). Journal of Landscape Ecology 7(1):23-44. https://doi.org/10.2478/jlecol-2014-0008
Vasile D, Enescu R, Vechiu E, Coman S, Scărlătescu V (2020). Monumental trees of Brasov county. Revista de Silvicultura si Cinegetica 25(46):70-76.
Wypych A, Ustrnul Z, Sulikowska A, Chmielewski FM, Bochenek B (2017). Spatial and temporal variability of the frost‐free season in Central Europe and its circulation background. International Journal of Climatology 37(8):3340-3352. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4920
Zapponi L, Mazza G, Farina A, Fedrigoli L, Mazzocchi F, Roversi PF, … Mason F (2017). The role of monumental trees for the preservation of saproxylic biodiversity: re-thinking their management in cultural landscapes. In: Campanaro A, Hardersen S, Sabbatini Peverieri G, Carpaneto GM (Eds). Monitoring of saproxylic beetles and other insects protected in the European Union. Nature Conservation pp 231-243. https://doi.org/10.3897/naturaconservation.1912464
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.