Influences of sea water on the ethylene-biosynthesis, senescence-associated gene expressions, and antioxidant characteristics of Arabidopsis plants
We evaluated the physiological and antioxidant characteristics of Arabidopsis thaliana (At) plants grown in different sea water (SW) products containing trace elements, namely RO3, 300K, and 340K, at various dilutions. The synthetic water (namely 300K-Test), a mixture of the main ions of SW including 143.08 mg L-1 Mg2+, 5.74 mg L-1 Na+, 170 mg L-1 K+, and 33.5 mg L-1 Ca2+ with equal concentrations to those in 300K SW without trace elements, was also used to culture At plants and study the influences that the major ions had on regulating ethylene production. The ethylene-biosynthesis (ACS7 and ACO2) and senescence-associated (NAP, SAG113, and WRKY6) gene expressions in SW- and ionic-treated At plants in response to transcriptional signaling pathways of ethylene response mechanisms were also investigated. Our results show that down-regulation of the ACS7 gene in 300K-treated plants significantly reduced the ethylene content but remarkably increased chlorophyll, total phenol, and DPPH radical scavenging accumulations and strengthened the salt tolerance of 300K-treated plants. The expression of the ACS7 gene of At plants under 300K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ treatments was correlated with decreases in NAP, SAG113, and WRKY6 gene expressions. The application of Ca2+ increased total phenol content and reduced the accumulation of superoxide, which in combination decreases plant aging brought on by ethylene. However, K+ treatment inhibited SGA113 gene expression, resulting in reducing ACS7 gene expression and ethylene content. The characterization and functional analysis of these genes should facilitate our understanding of ethylene response mechanisms in plants.
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