Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian, France and Austrian Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) essential oils
Essential oil (EO) of Laurus nobilis, from Tunisian, France and Austrian were screened for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and compared. GC-MS analysis showed that leaves of Tunisian L. nobilis had camphor (34.43%), 1,8-cineole (20.21%) and α-terpineol (7%) as major components. France and Austrian EOs had a high content of 1,8-cineole (45.8% and 43.4%, respectively) followed by bornyl acetate (13.8% and 17.7% respectively) and methyl eugenol (7.7% and 10.9% respectively). Antioxidant potential was measured by ABTS and DPPH tests. Tunisian L. nobilis EO showed greater radical scavenging by ABTS activity (IC50=44.8±0.1 mg/L) than the France and Austrian EOs (76.4±3.2 mg/L and 81.4±4.0 mg/L, respectively). However, for DPPH test system, French and Austrian EOs activities were excellent (IC50=176.1±5.1 mg/L and 236.3±2.9 mg/L respectively) then Tunisian L. nobilis EO (IC50=2859.7±99.0 mg/L). A good Antimicrobial activity was observed on the yeasts and fungi for all EOs. Tunisian laurel EO show a better antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonial, E. coli and Salmonella enterica CMI: 0.004 mg/ml) than gram-positive ones (Bacilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes CMI: 0.01 mg/ml). A significant antifungal activity of Tunisian EO was also observed against fungi and yeasts species (CMI: 0.004 mg/ml). France essential oil shows better activities against all organisms tested wail Austrian oil activity is more important against yeasts species tested and Mucor ramannianus (fungi). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Tunisian L. nobilis essential oil, were different from that of France and Austrian and it give the opportunity for its uses in new pharmaceuticals and natural therapies of infectious diseases.
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