Determination of allelopathic properties of Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.

  • Kawsar HOSSEN Kagawa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Biological Science, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795; Ehime University, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566
  • Hisashi KATO-NOGUCHI Kagawa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Biological Science, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795; Ehime University, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566
Keywords: Acacia catechu; allelopathy; bio-herbicides; weed control


Plants possessing allelopathic potential could be used as a source of bio-herbicide to help decrease the use of synthetic herbicides. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd., a deciduous tree from the Mimosaceae family, has been reported to have medicinal properties. However, there have been no reports on the allelopathy of this tree. Therefore, the leaf extracts of A. catechu were examined for allelopathic potential using six concentrations: 0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1. The aqueous methanol extracts of A. catechu significantly suppressed the seedling growth of six test plants such as alfalfa, cress, lettuce, barnyard grass, Italian ryegrass, and timothy. The extracts inhibited the six test plants in a concentration-dependent manner. The shoot and root growth of all the test plant species were completely inhibited from the concentration of 0.3 g of dry weight equivalent extract mL-1, except the shoot growth of barnyard grass. Concentrations needed for 50% growth inhibition (I50 values) ranged from 0.004 to 0.043 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1 for shoot growth, and 0.003 to 0.019 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1 for root growth. Moreover, the I50 values indicated that the root growth of all the test plants was more susceptible to the A. catechu extracts than the shoot growth. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of A. catechu suggest that the extracts may contain allelopathic potential and, therefore, may be a potential candidate for the isolation and characterization of allelochemicals to develop an ecofriendly bio-herbicide.


Metrics Loading ...


Al-Harbi NA (2018). Allelopathic effect of leaf extract of two wild plants on seed germination, shoot and root length of two weed species; Portulaca oleracea and Chenopodium murale. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Asia 15(4):929-935.

Anonymous (2002). Indian herbal pharmacopoeia. Revised edition; Indian Drug Manufacturer’s Association, Mumbai, pp 1-11.

Appiah KS, Li Z, Zeng RS, Luo S, Oikawa Y, Fujii Y (2015). Determination of allelopathic potentials in plant species in Sino-Japanese floristic region by sandwich method and dish pack method. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 4:381-394.

Appiah KS, Mardani HK, Osivand A, Kpabitey S, Amoatey CA, Oikawa Y, Fujii Y (2017). Exploring alternative use of medicinal plants for sustainable weed management. Sustainability 9(8):1468.

Bich TTN, Kato-Noguchi H (2014). Isolation and identification of phytotoxic substance from emergent macrophyte Centrostachys aquatica. Botanical Studies 55:1-5.

Chakrabarty T, Gangopadhyay M (1996). The genus Acacia P. Miller, (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) in India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 20:599-633.

Daniel M, Duniya N, Adams IG (2013). Effect of continuous application of herbicide on soil and environment with crop protection machinery in southern Adamawa state. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science 2(6):4-9.

Fujii Y (2003). Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). Biological Sciences in Space 17:6-13.

Fujii Y, Parvez SS, Parvez MM, Ohmae Y, Iida O (2003). Screening of 239 medicinal plant species for allelopathic activity using the sandwich method. Weed Biology and Management 3:233-241.

Gulzar A, Siddiqui MB, Bi S (2016). Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L. Protoplasma 253(5):1211-1221.

Heap I (2014). Global perspective of herbicide-resistant weeds. Pest Management Science 70:1306-1315.

Heap I (2019). The international survey of herbicide resistant weeds. Retrieved 2019 August 5 from

Hossen K, Das KR, Okada S, Iwasaki A, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H (2020). Allelopathic potential and active substances from Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck). Foods 9:1591.

Hunt ND, Hill JD, Liebman M (2017). Reducing freshwater toxicity while maintaining weed control, profits, and productivity: Effects of increased crop rotation diversity and reduced herbicide usage. Environmental Science and Technology 51:1707-1717. http:/

IBM Corp (2007). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Version 16.0. Armonk, NY, IBM Corp.

Ishak MS, Sahid I (2014). Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species. AIP Conference Proceedings 1614(1):659-664.

Islam MS, Zaman F, Iwasaki A, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H (2019). Phytotoxic potential of Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. (Poaceae). Weed Biology and Management 19:51-58.

Islam MS, Iwasaki A, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H (2017). Evaluation of phytotoxic potential and identification of phytotoxic compounds in Rumex maritimus. Plant Biosystems

Islam MS, Kato-Noguchi H (2016). Phytotoxicity assessment of Cyperus difformis (L.) towards a sustainable weed management option. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 26(6):1765-1771.

Ismail S, Asad M (2009). Immunomodulatory activity of Acacia catechu. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 53(1):25-33.

Jabran K, Mahajan G, Sardana V, Chauhan BS (2015). Allelopathy for weed control in agricultural systems. Crop Protection 72:57-65. /10.1016/j. cropro. 2015.03.004

Kato-Noguchi H, Puklai P, Ohno O, Suenaga K (2014). Isolation and identification of plant growth inhibitor from Tinospora tubercula Beumee. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 36(7):1621-1626.

Kato-Noguchi H, Hamada N, Morita M, Suenaga K (2013). A novel allelopathic substance, 13-epi-orthosiphol N, in Orthosiphon stamineus. Journal of Plant Physiology 170(1):1-5.

Lakshmi T, Geetha RV, Anitha R (2011). Acacia catechu willd: A pharmacological review. International Journal of Current Research and Review 3(5):101-111.

Lakshmi T, Arvind KS (2011). Preliminary phytochemical analysis & invitro antibacterial activity of Acacia catechu willd Bark against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis & Lactobacillus acidophilus. International Journal of Phytomedicine 3(4):579.

Li X, Wang H, Liu C, Chen R (2010). Chemical constituents of Acacia catechu. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 35(11):1425-1427.

Liu J, Xie M, Li X, Jin H, Yang X, Yan Z, Qin B (2018). Main allelochemicals from the rhizosphere soil of Saussurea lappa (Decne.) Sch. Bip. and their effects on plants’ antioxidase systems. Molecules 23:2506.

Mazumder B (2011). A study on the harmful effects of pesticides used in the cultivation of brinjal in longai river valley, Karimganj, Assam, India. Assam University Journal of Science & Technology: Biological and Environmental Sciences 7(1):84-88.

McErlich AF, Boydston RA (2013). Current state of weed management in organic and conventional cropping systems. Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty 1387.

Morikawa CIO, Miyaura R, Figueroa MLT, Salgado ELR, Fujii Y (2012). Screening of 170 Peruvian plant species for allelopathic activity by using the sandwich method. Weed Biology and Management 12:1-11.

Mushtaq W, Ain Q, Siddiqui MB (2018). Screening of allelopathic activity of the leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. on some selected crops in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology 2(1):1-4.

Netsere A, Mendesil E (2012). Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. aqueous extracts on soybean (Glycine max L.) and haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed germination, shoot and root growth and dry matter production. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 84:219-222.

Nishida N, Tamotsu S, Nagata N, Saito C, Sakai A (2005). Allelopathic effects of volatile monoterpenoids produced by Salvia leucophylla: Inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem of Brassica campestris seedlings. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31(5):1187-1203.

Ojija F, Arnold SEJ, Treydte AC (2019). Bio-herbicide potential of naturalised Desmodium uncinatum crude leaf extract against the invasive plant species Parthenium hysterophorus. Biological Invasions 21(12):3641-3653.

Piyatida P, Kimira P, Sato M, Kato-Noguchi H (2013). Isolation of β-sitosterol from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Allelopathy Journal 32:289-300.

Popay I (2008). Weeds of agriculture - Introduction of weeds. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

Pukclai P, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H (2010). Allelopathic potential and chemical composition of Rhinacanthus nasutus extracts. Allelopathy Journal 26(2):207-215.

Raihan I, Miyaura R, Baki BB, Fujii Y (2019). Assessment of allelopathic potential of goniothalam in allelochemical from Malaysian plant Goniothalamus andersonii J. Sinclair by sandwich method. Allelopathy Journal 46:25-40.

Ray D, Sharatchandra KH, Thokchom IS (2006). Antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu Willd. in albino rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 38(6):408-413.

Rob MM, Hossen K, Iwasaki A, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H (2020). Phytotoxic activity and identification of phytotoxic substances from Schumannianthus dichotomus. Plants 9:102.

Rob MM, Kato-Noguchi H (2019). Study of the allelopathic activity of Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. Plant Omics Journal 12(01):31-36. poj.12.01.19.pt1773

Sbai H, Saad I, Ghezal N, Della GM, Haouala R (2016). Bioactive compounds isolated from Petroselinum crispum L. leaves using bio guided fractionation. Industrial Crops and Products 89:207-214.

Singh B, Uniyal AK, Bhatt BP, Prasad S (2006). Effects of agroforestry tree spp. on crops. Allelopathy Journal 18(2):355-362.

Singh KN, Lal B (2006). Notes on traditional uses of khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) by inhabitants of shivalik range in Western Himalaya. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10:109-112.

Singh KN (2000). Variation studies on katha content in relation to different forms of khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) trees. MSc Dissertation, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, India.

Singh HP, Batish RD, Kohli RK (2003). Allelopathic interactions and allelochemicals: New possibilities for sustainable weed management. Critical Review Plant Sciences 22:239-311.

Singh KN, Mittal RK, Barthwal KC (1976). Hypoglycaemic activity of Acacia catechu, Acacia suma, and Albizzia odoratissima seed diets in normal albino rats. Indian Journal of Medical Research 64(5):754-757.

Sinha NK, Samar JS (2004). Allelopathic effects of Xanthium strumarium on Parthenium hysterophorus. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 9:313-315.

Sodaeizadeh H, Hosseini Z (2012). Allelopathy an environmentally friendly method for weed control. In: International Conference on Applied Life Sciences. 10.5772/intechopen.84109

Suwitchayanon P, Pukclai P, Ohno O, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H (2015). Isolation and identification of an allelopathic substance from Hibiscus sabdariffa. Natural Products Communication 10:765-766.

Swain D, Pandey P, Paroha S, Singh M, Yaduraju N (2005). Effects of Physalis minima on Parthenium hysterophorus. Allelopathy Journal 15:275-283.

Tanveer A, Jabbar MK, Kahliq A, Matloob A, Abbas RN, Javaid MM (2012). Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 72:495-501.

Wallis TE (2005). Textbook of pharmacognosy. 5th Edition; CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi pp 461-463.

Weston LA, Duke SO (2003). Weed and crop allelopathy. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22:367-389.

Wu H, Pratley J, Lemerled D, Haig T (1999). Crop cultivars with allelopathic capability. Weed Research 39:171-180.

Xiao ZX, Chang L, Xu ZH (2017). Vertical leaching of allelochemicals affecting their bioactivity and the microbial community of soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65:7847-7853.

Yan X, Lynch JP, Beebe SE (1995). Genetic variation for phosphorus efficiency of common bean in contrasting soil types. I. Vegetative response. Crop Science. 35:1086-1093.

Yoshimura H, Sawai YS, Tamotsu S, Sakai A (2011). 1, 8-cineole inhibits both proliferation and elongation of BY-2 cultured tobacco cells. Journal of Chemical Ecology 37(3):320-328.

Zaman F, Iwasaki A, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H (2020). Allelopathic potential and identification of two allelopathic substances in Eleocharis atropurpurea. Plant Biosystems

Zeng RS, Mallik AU, Luo S (2008). Allelopathy in sustainable agriculture and forestry. Retrieved 2019 January 22 from 9780387773360

How to Cite
HOSSEN, K., & KATO-NOGUCHI, H. (2020). Determination of allelopathic properties of Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(4), 2050-2059.
Research Articles