Pomological and phenological characteristics of the main pistachio cultivars in Greece

  • Ioannis MANTHOS Hellenic Agricultural Organization-DEMETER, Institute of Plant Breeding & Genetic Resources, Department of Nut Trees, Neo Krikelo, Lamia 35100 (GR)
  • Dimos ROUSKAS Hellenic Agricultural Organization-DEMETER, Institute of Plant Breeding & Genetic Resources, Department of Nut Trees, Neo Krikelo, Lamia 35100 (GR)
  • Evangelos KARAGIANNIS Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Agriculture, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki (GR)
  • Thomas SOTIROPOULOS Hellenic Agricultural Organization-DEMETER, Institute of Plant Breeding & Genetic Resources, Department of Deciduous Fruit Trees, 38 SS Naoussa, 59035 Naoussa (GR)
  • Athanasios MOLASIOTIS Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Agriculture, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki (GR)
  • Mihai BOTU University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture, Department of Horticulture and Food Science, Str. 13 Al. I. Cuza, Craiova (RO)
Keywords: Greek pistachio cultivars; nut characteristics; Pistacia vera; nut antioxidants

Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the pomological and phenological traits, as well as kernel antioxidant potential of the dominant Greek pistachio cultivars, ‘Aegina’ and ‘Pontikis’ (Pistacia vera L.). Blooming of ‘Aegina’ cultivar occurred from early to mid of April, and nut maturation at middle to late of August. Production started at 6 to 7 years from grafting and full production observed at year 13. Blooming and nut maturation of ‘Pontikis’ occurred about 1 to 2 days later than ‘Aegina’ and production started 6 to 7 years from grafting, with full production observed in the 14th year. Mean tree yields reached 18.0 ± 1.0 kg and 17.4 ± 1.1 kg of dry nuts, in ‘Aegina’ and ‘Pontikis’ cultivar, respectively. ‘Aegina’ cultivar presented intermediate tree vigour and spreading growth habit, whereas ‘Pontikis’ high tree vigour and semi-erect growth habit. ‘Aegina’ nut had a narrowly cordate shape and the percentage of split nut was found at 78.5 ± 6.5. ‘Pontikis’ nut had ovoid shape and the percentage of split nut was 84.1 ± 6.2. In ‘Aegina’ cultivar 100 nuts weighted 101.0 g and in ‘Pontikis’ 114.4 g. Color of kernel was green externally and green to green-white internally, greener in ‘Pontikis’. The antioxidant potential of pistachio kernel measured by FRAP assay, total polyphenolic substances, flavonoids, flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids content, did not differ (P > 0.05) between cultivars. Evaluation of ‘Aegina’ and ‘Pontikis’ pistachio cultivars revealed that both are high yielding, with large nut sizes of acceptable appearance and high quality.

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Published
2020-12-22
How to Cite
MANTHOS, I., ROUSKAS, D., KARAGIANNIS, E., SOTIROPOULOS, T., MOLASIOTIS, A., & BOTU, M. (2020). Pomological and phenological characteristics of the main pistachio cultivars in Greece. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(4), 2343-2358. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha48412097
Section
Research Articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nbha48412097