Analysis of agronomic and chemical-nutritional variability of fruits in Amazon germplasm of Capsicum chinense

  • Santina R. SANTANA Federal University of Rondônia, Fishery Engineering Department, Presidente Médici, RO
  • Derly J. H. da SILVA Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agronomy, Viçosa, MG
  • Leonardo L. BHERING Federal University of Viçosa, Department of General Biology, Viçosa, MG
  • Ronaldo S. GOMES Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agronomy, Viçosa, MG
  • Renato D. S. ROSADO Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agronomy, Viçosa, MG
  • Paula C. C. LIMA Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agronomy, Viçosa, MG
Keywords: characterization; conservation; pepper; breeding; vitamin C


Fruits of Capsicum chinense, a native species of Amazon Basin, express high levels of bioactive components such as vitamin C and carotenoids; some of them with pronounced pro-vitamin A activity such as β-carotene, which confers high economic potential to this species. The characterization of C. chinense germplasm helps in its management and conservation. Therefore, this practice is considered crucial for the identification of genotypes with superior characteristics, especially in relation to agronomic aspects and chemical-nutritional characteristics of fruits. This study aimed to characterize 55 C. chinense accessions collected from the Brazilian Amazon in terms of their agronomic and chemical-nutritional descriptors aiming to identify superior genotypes for these traits. The characterization was performed in a completely randomized design with 5 replications in non-heated environment. There was significant difference for all descriptors, confirming the variability among accessions. High heritability estimates for descriptors, such as fruit yield (95.1%) and vitamin C content of fruit (92.4%), was found to be associated with high CVg/CVe ratios of these traits, indicating a favorable condition for the selection of superior genotypes for these characteristics. A considerable part of the accessions expressed averages higher than the checks, notably for the fruit yield and the content of vitamin C. The cluster analysis resulted in the formation of 11 groups, corroborating the high variability of accessions for the agronomic and chemical-nutritional aspects of fruits. The evaluated C. chinense germplasm thus expressed high fruit yield and vitamin C content in the fruits, which makes it a promising source for the selection of superior genotypes.


Metrics Loading ...


AOAC (2012). Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. Official methods of analysis (19th ed), Gaithersburg.

Araujo CMM (2013). Genetic analysis in landraces of murupi pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) of Amazonia. Dissertação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia.

Arruda S (2012). Rondônia climate. Retrieved 2020 November 8 from

Barroca MV, Bonomo R, Fernandes AA, Souza, JM (2015). Irrigation blades in the production components of 'de-odor' and 'dedo-de-moça' peppers. Agro@mbiente 9(3):243-250.

Batista MRA, Silva Filho DF (2014). Morpho-agronomic characterization of non-pungent peppers of the genus Capsicum spp. from the Amazon. Agro@mbiente 8(2):204-211.

Bento CS, Sudré CP, Rodrigues R, Riva EM, Pereira MG (2007). Qualitative and multicategorical descriptors in the estimation of phenotypic variability among chili pepper accessions. Scientia Agraria 8(2):147-154.

Borem A, Miranda GV (2009). Plant breeding. (1th ed), Viçosa, Minas Gerais.

Borges KM, Vilarinho LBO, Filho AAM, Morais BR, Rodrigues RNS (2015). Morpho-agronomic and physicochemical characterisation of the pepper for the State of Roraima. Agro@mbiente 9(3):292-299.

Bosland PW, Votava EJ (2000). Peppers: vegetable and spice Capsicum. New York, Cabi.

Burle ML, Oliveira MSP (2010). Plant germplasm curators manual: morphological characterization. Brasília, Distrito Federal.

Braga TR, Pereira RA, Silveira MRS, Silva LR, Silva AR, Oliveira MMT (2013). Physical-chemistry characterization of chili peppers progenies grown in Paraipaba-CE. Revista Scientia Plena 9(5):2-6.

Carvalho SIC, Bianchetti LB, Ribeiro CSC, Lopes CA (2006). Capsicum peppers in Brazil (1th ed). Brasília, Distrito Federal.

Carvalho AV, Aciel RA, Beckman JC, Poltronieri MC (2014). Characterization of Capsicum spp. during maturation. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental.

Chunab NC, Duch ES, Castilla LO, Burgos JIR (2011). Valuación de la calidad en la industrialización del chile habanero (Capsicum chinense) [Quality assessment in the industrialization of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense).]. Iberoamericana de Tecnología Postcosecha 12(2):222-226.

Conti JH, Minami K, Tavares FCA (2002). Production and quality of some cultivars of strawberry fruits in field experiments at Atibaia and Piracicaba, Brazil. Brazilian Horticulture 20(1):10-17.

Costa LV, Bentes JLS, Lopes MTG, Alves SRM, Junior JV (2015). Morphological characterization of Amazon pepper accessions. Brazilian Horticulture 33(3):290-298.

Cruz CD, Ferreira FM, Pessoni LA (2011). Biometrics applied to the study of genetic diversity (1th ed). Minas Gerais.

Cruz CD, Regazzi AJ, Carneiro PCS (2012). Biometric models applied to genetic improvement (4th ed). Viçosa, Minas Gerais.

Cruz CD (2013). GENES - a software package for analysis in experimental statistics and quantitative genetics. Acta Scientiarum 35(3):271-276.

Di Prado PRC (2013). Genetic parameters and selection gains in goat pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq). MSc Dissertation, University of Goiás.

Domenico CI, Coutinho JP, Godoy HT, Melo AMT (2012). Agronomic traits and pungency of chilli pepper. Brazilian Horticulture 30(3):466-472.

Domiciano GP, Alves AA, Laviola BG, Conceição LDHCS (2015). Genetic parameters and diversity in progenies from Macaw Palm based on morphological and physiological traits. Rural Science 45(9):1599-1605.

FAO (2016). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2019 January 25 from

Faria PN, Laia GA, Cardoso KA, Finger FL, Cecon PR (2013). Genetic variability of pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) samples from a germoplasm bank: a case study. Agrarian Sciences 36(1):17-22.

Ferrão LFV, Cecon PR, Finger FL, Silva FF, Puiatti M (2011). Genetic divergence among sub-samples of pepper based on morpho-agronomic characters. Brazilian Horticulture 29(3):354-358.

Köppen W (1948). Climatology. Translation: Pedro RH. Gráfica Panamericana. Buenos Aires.

Galate RS, Mota MGC, Gaia JMD, Costa MSS (2014). Phenotypic distance among assai palm’s mother plants (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Eastern Amazon. Semina: Agrarian Sciences 35(4):1667-1682.

Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2008). Physico-chemical methods for food analysis. (4th ed), São Paulo.

IPGRI-International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1995). Descriptors for Capsicum (Capsicum spp). Roma.

Itle RA, Kabelka EA (1997). Correlation between L a b color space values and carotenoids content in pumpkins and squash (Cucurbita spp.). Horticultural Science 122(4):594-598.

Jäger MA, AMAYA K (2013). Las cadenas de valor de los ajíes nativos de Perú. Compilación de los estudios realizados dentro del marco del proyecto “Rescate y Promoción de Ajíes Nativos en su Centro de Origen” para Perú [The value chains of the native peppers of Peru. Compilation of studies carried out within the framework of the project “Rescue and Promotion of Native Chili Peppers in their Center of Origin” for Peru]. Bioversity International. Cali.

Jarret SD, Berke T, Baldwin EA, Antonious GF (2009). Variability for free sugars and organic acids in Capsicum chinense. Chemical Biodiversity 6(2):138-145.

Lannes SD (2005). Diversity in Capsicum chinense: chemical, morphological and molecular analysis. PhD Thesis, University of Viçosa.

Lopes MAP, Gonçalves LD, Morais EG, Rezende CP, Vaz GHB (2016). Characterization of cumari pepper accessions of natural distribution for purposes of genetic improvement. Agrogeoambiental 8(4):105-115.

MAPA (2013). Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Method for determining ascorbic acid. Handboo of methods of Analysis of Beverages and Vinegars. Retrieved 2018 December 15 from file:///D:/Usuario/Downloads/N%C3%83O%20ALCO%C3%93LICOS%20-%2022%20%C3%81cido%20Asc%C3%B3rbico.pdf

Milligan GW, Cooper MC (1985). An examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set. Psychometrika 50(2):159-179.

Mojena R (1977) Hierarchical grouping methods and stopping rules: an evaluation. The Computer Journal 20(4):359-363.

Moreira SO, Rodrigues R, Araújo ML, Sudré CP, Riva-Souza EM (2010). Agronomic performance of recombinant chili pepper inbred lines in two cultivation systems. Science and Agrotechnology 34(4):886-891.

Moura WM, Casali VW, Cruz CD, Lima PC (1999). Genetic divergence of phosphorus nutritional efficiency in sweet pepper lines. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 34(2):217-224.

Neto JJS, Rêgo ER, Nascimento MF, Filho VALS, Neto JXA, Rêgo MM (2014). Variability in a base population of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Ceres 61(1):084-089. (2014)

Paulus D, Valmorbida R, Santin A, Toffoli E, Paulus, E (2015). Growth, yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum) at different spacings. Brazilian Horticulture 33(1):91-100.

Padilha HKM (2017). Genetic resources of peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae): genetic diversity, resistance to anthracnose and production of specialized metabolites. PhD Thesis, University of Pelotas.

Perla V, Nadimi M, Hankins G, Reddy UK, Nimmakayala P, Alaparthi S, Ebert A (2016). Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes. Food Chemistry 202:189-198.

Pimenta S (2015). ‘Carioca’ and ‘Uenf carioquinha’: New pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) resistant to bacterial spot. PhD Thesis, University of Norte Fluminense.

Pinto CMF, Pinto CLO, Donzeles SML (2013). Chemical, nutritional, pharmacological and medicinal properties and their potential for agribusiness. Sustainable Agriculture 3(2):108-120.

Reifschneider FJB (2000). Capsicum: peppers and peppers in Brazil. (1th ed), Brasília.

Rabelo BT, Pereira RCAS, Silva LR, Oliveira MMT (2013). Physico-chemical characterization of pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) progênies. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía 12(1):6-10.

Rêgo ER, Finger FL, Rêgo MM (2011). Production, genetics and breeding of peppers (Capsicum spp.). (1th ed), Recife.

Reis DR, Barbosa CMD, Silva FS, Porto AG, Soares EJO (2015). Biometric characteristics and physical-chemistry biquinho pepper variety. Scientific Center Know 11(21):454.

Rigon JPG, Capuani S, Cherubin MR, Rosa GM, Wastowski AD (2012). Agronomic performance and genetic dissimilarity unflower. Rural Science 42(11): 1954-1959.

Rodrigues R, Bento CS, Pimenta S, Sudré CP (2016). Pepper and Pepper Breeding. In: Nick C, Borem A (Eds). Improvement of vegetables. Viçosa, Minas Gerais pp 221-250.

Rohlf FJ (1970). Adaptive hierarchical clustering schemes. Systematic Zoology 18:58-82.

Rufino JLS, Penteado DCS (2006). Economic importance, prospects and market potential for pepper. Agricultural Report 27(235).

Santana LRR, Matsuura FCAU, Cardoso RL (2004). Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): sensory and physico-chemical evaluation. Science and Food Technology 24(2):217-222.

Santos CEM, Pissioni LLM, Morgado MAD, Cruz CD, Bruckner CH (2008). Strategies of selection in yellow passion fruit progenies for vigor and scab incidence. Brazilian Journal of Fruit Growing 30(2):444-449.

Singh D (1981). The relative importance of characters affecting genetic divergence. The Indian Journal of Genetic and Plant Breeding 41:237-245.

TACO (2011). Table brazilian food composition table. UNICAMP. Retrieved 2018 September 18 from

Teodoro AFP, Alves RBN, Ribeiro LB, Reis K, Reifschneider FJB, ... Agostini-Coata TS (2013). Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense). Brazilian Horticulture 31(1):59-62.

Ulhoa AB, Pereira TNS, Ribeiro CSC, Moita AW, Reifschneider FJB (2017). Development and morpho-agronomic characterization of yellow jalapeño pepper lines. Brazilian Horticulture 35(3):343-348.

Vaz Patto MC, Satovic Z, Pêgo S, Fevereiro P (2004). Assessing the genetic diversity of Portuguese maize germoplasm using microsatellite markers. Euphytica 137(1):63-72.

How to Cite
SANTANA, S. R., da SILVA, D. J. H., BHERING, L. L., GOMES, R. S., ROSADO, R. D. S., & LIMA, P. C. C. (2020). Analysis of agronomic and chemical-nutritional variability of fruits in Amazon germplasm of Capsicum chinense . Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(4), 2198-2214.
Research Articles