The relationships between forestry sector standardization, market evolution and sustainability approaches in the communist and post-communist economies: the case of Romania
Keywords:economic evolution; Romanian forestry; standardization; sustainability
This paper analyses how forestry standardization process interrelates with the national and sectoral economic characteristics and the evolution of sustainable forest management implementation in communist and post-communist Romania. The study used the database of Romanian Standardization Association for selecting forestry specific standards, which have been issued since 1949. The selected standards were grouped according to their scope, issuing period and international recognition, and the obtained distributions were analysed in the context of sectoral economic evolution. In the communist period, the long-term sectoral strategy, which was centred on sustainable forest management, added value products and export was accompanied by a sustained effort in standardizing the design and quality of forest products, as well as the needed processes. Based on standardization, the efficient and integrated forest industry acted in the framework of a prescriptively regulated sustainable forest management. Mandatory national standards from the communist period have been mostly replaced by post-communist consensual international standards. The opportunities of a market economy and EU trade supported a private forest industry that is increasingly efficient, productive and innovative. However, considering the high forestry sector environmental and social sustainability requirements, the state authorities must carefully address their mission of balancing different interests, for which standardization may provide very useful tools.
Abrudan IV (2012). A decade of non-state administration of forests in Romania: achievements and challenges. International Forestry Review 14(3):275-284. https://doi.org/10.1505/146554812802646684
Abrudan IV, Marinescu V, Ionescu O, Ioras F, Horodnic SA, Sestras R (2009). Developments in the Romanian forestry and its linkages with other sectors. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 37(2):14-21. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha3723468
Anonimus (1976). Programul national pentru conservarea si dezvoltarea fondului forestier ofera largi posibilitati de activitate pentru fiecare silvicultor. Revista Padurilor-Industria Lemnului. Seria: Silvicultura si Exploatarea Padurilor.
Aplet G, Jhonson N, Olson J, Sample V (1993). Defining Sustainable Forestry (Island Press).
APMR (2018). Retrieved 2020 March 16 from http://www.industriamobilei.ro
ASRO (2011). Knowing and applying the standards - essentials for existing on a competition market.
ASRO (2020). Retrieved 2020 March18 from https://www.asro.ro/
Banu F (2004). Asalt asupra economiei României [Assault on the Romanian economy]. De la Solagra la Solvrom (1936 – 1956). Nemira Press, Bucharest, Romania.
Baud-Lavigne B, Agard B, Penz B (2012). Mutual impacts of product standardization and supply chain design. International Journal of Production Economics 135(1):50-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2010.09.024
Baumgartner RJ (2019). Sustainable development goals and the forest sector-a complex relationship. Forests 10(2):152. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020152
Baumgartner RJ, Ebner D (2010). Corporate sustainability strategies: sustainability profiles and maturity levels. Sustainable Development 18(2):76-89. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.447
Baumgartner RJ, Rauter R (2017). Strategic perspectives of corporate sustainability management to develop a sustainable organization. Journal of Cleaner Production 140:81-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.146
Bejan M, Bejan B, Balan L (2019). Romanian standardization after 20 years. AGIR Bulletin 1:24-32.
Ben-Ner A, Montias JM (1991). The Introduction of markets in a hyper centralized economy: the case of Romania. Journal of Economic Perspectives 5(4):163-170. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.5.4.163
Borz SA, Rommel D, Ziesak M, Vasiliauskas G (2019). Operational requirements and preferences towards forwarder technology. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Forestry, Wood Industry, Agricultural Food Engineering. Series II 12(1):1-12.
Bruce M, Daly L, Towers N (2004). Lean or agile: A solution for supply chain management in the textiles and clothing industry? International Journal of Operations and Production Management 24(2):151-170. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443570410514867
Carroll AB (1999). Corporate social responsibility: evolution of a definitional construct. Business & Society 38(3):268-295. https://doi.org/10.1177/000765039903800303
Chang RD, Zuo J, Zhao ZY, Zillante G, Gan XL, Soebarto V (2017). Evolving theories of sustainability and firms: History, future directions and implications for renewable energy research. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 72:48-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.029
Ciceu A, Radu R, García-Duro J (2019). Planul Național de Contabilizare a Pădurilor pentru România. Institutul Național de Cercetare-Dezvoltare în Silvicultură „Marin Drăcea” (INCDS). Voluntari. Romania. pp 89. Retrieved 2020 May 18 from http://www.mmediu.ro/app/webroot/uploads/files/National%20forestry%20accounting%20plan%20of%20Romania_RO.pdf
De Vries HJ (1999). Standardization: A business approach to the role of national standardization organizations. Springer Science & Business Media.
Drăgoi M, Toza V (2019). Did forestland restitution facilitate institutional amnesia? Some evidence from Romanian forest policy. Land 8(6):99. https://doi.org/10.3390/land8060099
Duduman G (2019). Scurtistoric al amenajăriipădurilor din România. Bucovina Forestiera 19(2):139-158. https://doi.org/10.4316/bf.2019.019
European Environment Agency (2003). European Environment Agency Digital map of European ecological regions. Retrieved 2020 March 18 from https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/digital-map-of-european-ecological-regions
FAOSTAT. Retrieved 2020 March 18 from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home
Fornasiero R, Macchion L, Vinelli A (2015). Supply chain configuration towards customization: a comparison between small and large series production. IFAC-PapersOnLine 48(3):1428-1433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.06.287
Gandal N (2002). Compatibility, standardization, and network effects: some policy implications. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 18(1):80-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/18.1.80
Gaurav N, Sivasankari S, Kiran G, Ninawe A, Selvin J (2017). Utilization of bioresources for sustainable biofuels: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 73:205-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.070
Giurgiu V (1988). Amenajarea pădurilor cu funcții multiple [Multipurpose forests management planning] Ceres. (Bucharest, Romania).
Grefrath C, Wagner D, Macchi M, Granados MH, Stermann S (2017). Methods and tools for sustainable development of products and services. Value Networks in Manufacturing. Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing. (Springer International Publishing, Switzerland), pp 223-246.
Hamel G (2006). The why, what, and how of management innovation. Harvard Business Review 84(2):72-84. https://hbr.org/2006/02/the-why-what-and-how-of-management-innovation
Hashem G, Tann J (2007). The adoption of ISO 9000 standards within the Egyptian context: a diffusion of innovation approach. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence 18(6):631-652. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360701349435
Hill CWL, Rothaermel FT (2003). The performance of incumbent firms in the face of radical technological innovation. Academy of Management Review 28(2):257-274. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2003.9416161
Hopwood B, Mellor M, O’Brien G (2005). Sustainable development: mapping different approaches. Sustainable Development 13(1):38-52. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.244
Hurmekoski E, Jonsson R, Korhonen J, Jänis J, Mäkinen M, Leskinen P, Hetemäki L (2018). Diversification of the forest industries: role of new wood-based products. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48(12):1417-1432. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2018-0116
Iancu A, Pavelescu FM (2018). Crestere economica, acumulare si dezechilibre în România perioadei comuniste. Studii Economice. Academia Română, Institutul Național de Cercetări Economice, Bucharest, Romania.
IFN Results of the second cycle of National Forest Inventory (2013 - 2018). Retrieved 2020 March 18 from http://roifn.ro/site/ifn-ciclul-ii/
INS (1992). Anuarul statistic al României. Retrieved 2020 March 20 from http://ins.ro
INS (2019). Statistica activităților din silvicultură în anul 2018 [Forestry statistics for 2018]. Retrieved 2020 March 20 from http://www.insse.ro/cms/sites/default/files/field/publicatii/statistica_activitatilor_din_silvicultura_ in_anul_2018.pdf
ISO (2015). International Classification for Standards (ICS). Retrieved 2020 March 20 from https://www.iso.org/cms/render/live/en/sites/isoorg/contents/data/publication/10/00/PUB100033.html.
ISO-IEC Guide 2 (1991). General terms and their definitions concerning standardization and related activities. Retrieved 2020 March 20 from https://www.iso.org/standard/19713.html
Knorn J, Kuemmerle T, Radeloff VC, Keeton WS, Gancz V, Biriş IA, … Hostert P (2013). Continued loss of temperate old-growth forests in the Romanian Carpathians despite an increasing protected area network. Environmental Conservation 40(2):182-193. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892912000355
Lähtinen K, Toppinen A (2008). Financial performance in Finnish large- and medium-sized sawmills: The effects of value-added creation and cost-efficiency seeking. Journal of Forest Economics 14(4):289-305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfe.2008.02.001
Le Blanc D (2015). Towards integration at last? The sustainable development goals as a network of targets. Sustainable Development 23(3):176-187. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.1582
Lecocq X, Demil B (2006). Strategizing industry structure: the case of open systems in a low-tech industry. Strategic Management Journal 27(9):891-898. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.544
Linser S, Wolfslehner B, Bridge S, Gritten D, Johnson S, Payn T, … Robertson G (2018). 25 years of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: how intergovernmental C&I processes have made a difference. Forests 9(9):578. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090578
Macovei PC (2011). Principalele consecințe ale aplicării legislației în pădurile Bucovinei [The main consequences of application of the legislation on the Bukovina forests]. Geographica Timisiensis 20(1):5-11.
Marcean M (2002). Pădurile Sucevei şi calamităţile din perioada 1945-2002 [The forests of Suceava and the calamities from 1945-2002]. Bucovina Forestiera 10:1-2.
Munteanu C, Nita MD, Abrudan IV, Radeloff VC (2016). Historical forest management in Romania is imposing strong legacies on contemporary forests and their management. Forest Ecology and Management 361:179-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.11.023
Mureșan M (2008). Romania’s integration in COMECON. The analysis of a failure. The Romanian Economic Journal 11(30):27-58.
Naveh E (2007). Formality and discretion in successful R&D projects. Journal of Operations Management 25(1):110-125. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMBPP.2003.13792445
Nur R, Nasrullah B, Suyuti MA, Apollo (2018). Sustainable manufacturing by calculating the energy demand during turning of AISI 1045 steel. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 953:012028. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/953/1/012028
OCED (2020). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Review of Agricultural Policies Romania 139.
Popa B, Niță MD, Hălălișan AF (2019). Intentions to engage in forest law enforcement in Romania: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Forest Policy and Economics 100:33-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2018.11.005
Popa B, Pache RG (2016). The concept of ecosystem services - the solution to support the regulation efforts of the forestry sector in Romania. Revista Pădurilor 131(3-4):41-53.
Ramage MH, Burridge H, Busse-Wicher M, Fereday G, Reynolds T, Shah DU, Wu G (2017). The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68:333-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.107
Rysman M, Simcoe T (2008). Patents and the performance of voluntary standard-setting organizations. Management Science 54:1920-1934. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1080.0919
Sample VA, Sedjo RA (1996). Sustainability in forest management: An evolving concept. International Advances in Economic Research 2(2):165-173. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02295056
Silva ME, Figueiredo MD (2020). Practicing sustainability for responsible business in supply chains. Journal of Cleaner Production 251:119621.
Siry JP, Cubbage FW, Ahmed MR (2005). Sustainable forest management: global trends and opportunities. Forest Policy and Economics 7(4):551-561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2003.09.003
Stratton R, Warburton RDH (2003). The strategic integration of agile and lean supply. International Journal of Production Economics 85(2):183-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5273(03)00109-9
Timko J, Le Billon P, Zerriffi H, Honey-Rosés J, de la Roche I, Gaston C, … Kozak RA (2018). A policy nexus approach to forests and the SDGs: trade-offs and synergies. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 34:7-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2018.06.004
United Nations (2018). Goal 12: ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. Retrieved 2020 March 16 from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-consumption- production
Utterback JM (1996). Mastering the dynamics of innovation Nachdr. Harvard Business School, Boston, Mass.
Van Bueren EM, Blom EM (1997). Hierarchical framework for the formulation of sustainable forest management standards. The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, Netherland.
Veen P, Fanta J, Raev I, Biriş IA, de Smidt J, Maes B (2010). Virgin forests in Romania and Bulgaria: results of two national inventory projects and their implications for protection. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(6):1805-1819. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9804-2
Voces R, Diaz-Balteiro L, Romero C (2012). Characterization and explanation of the sustainability of the European wood manufacturing industries: A quantitative approach. Expert Systems with Applications 39(7):6618-6627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2011.12.040
Wisniewska J (2015). The concept of sustainable development in agribusiness. Intercathedra 31(3).
Xie Z, Hall J, McCarthy IP, Skitmore M, Shen L (2016). Standardization efforts: The relationship between knowledge dimensions, search processes and innovation outcomes. Technovation 48:69-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2015.12.002
Zaman G, Georgescu G (2018). A retrospective study on Romania’s external trade in the past 100 years. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, MPRA Paper No. 89707. Retrieved 2020 March 16 from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/89707/1/MPRA_paper_89707.pdf
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.