Growth, yield and fruit quality of Mexican tomato landraces in response to salt stress
The Mexican tomato landraces ‘Campeche’, ‘Oaxaca’, ‘Puebla’, and ‘Veracruz’, and the commercial hybrid ‘Vengador’ were evaluated in response to four levels of NaCl (0, 30, 60 and 90 mM) applied through the nutrient solution in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions. Yield and dry biomass weight of roots, stems and leaves were reduced by increasing salinity stress, while fruit quality characteristics were improved, with the magnitude of the changes being genotype-dependent. The landrace ‘Veracruz’ produced the lowest yield, 1.06 t ha-1 under control conditions and 0.59 t ha-1 when treated with 90 mM NaCl, amounting to a 44% reduction that was, however, the lowest yield decrease among all genotypes tested. Paradoxically, ‘Veracruz’ was the only landrace displaying a reduction in the root/shoot ratio when exposed to high salinity, indicating more sensitivity to salinity as compared to the other landraces and the hybrid tested. ‘Campeche’ performed the poorest in response to salinity with the most pronounced yield reductions, recording 71.1%, 80.1% and 89.6% yield decreases when comparing plants exposed to 30, 60 and 90 mM to the control, respectively. Although at each salinity level the ‘Veracruz’ fruits showed the highest °Brix value as compared to the other landraces and the hybrid, ‘Oaxaca’ and ‘Puebla’ fruits had a greater increase in °Brix between the control and 90 mM NaCl (109.2% and 110.4%, respectively). With 90 mM NaCl, ‘Oaxaca’ fruits also registered the highest decrease in pH (6.1%) and the highest increase in total soluble sugars (106.7%) with respect to the control.
Agong SG, Schittenhelm S, Friedt W (1997). Assessment of tolerance to salt stress in Kenyan tomato germplasm. Euphytica 95:57-66. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002933325347
Agong SG, Yoshida Y, Yazawa S, Masuda M (2004). Tomato response to salt stress. Acta Horticulturae 637:93-97. https://doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2004.637.10
André A, Maucourt M, Moing A, Rolin D, Renaudin J (2005). Sugar import and phytopathogenicity of Spiroplasma citri: Glucose and fructose play distinct roles. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 18(1):33-42. https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-18-0033
Bai Y, Lindhout P (2007). Domestication and breeding of tomatoes: What have we gained and what can we gain in the future? Annals of Botany 100(5):1085-1094. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcm150
Blanca J, Cañizares J, Cordero L, Pascual L, Diez MJ, Nuez F (2012). Variation revealed by SNP genotyping and morphology provides insight into the origin of the tomato. PLoS ONE 7(10):e48198. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048198
Bolarín MC, Pérez-Alfocea F, Cano EA, Estañ MT, Caro M (1993). Growth, fruit yield, and ion concentration in tomato genotypes after pre- and post-emergence salt treatments. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 118(5):655-660. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.118.5.655
Bonilla-Barrientos O, Lobato-Ortiz R, García-Zavala JJ, Cruz-Izquierdo S, Reyes-López D, Hernández-Leal E, Hernández-Bautista A (2014). Diversidad agronómica y morfológica de tomates arriñonados y tipo pimiento de uso local en Puebla y Oaxaca, México [Agronomic and morphological diversity of local kidney and bell pepper-shaped tomatoes from Puebla and Oaxaca, Mexico]. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 37(2):129-139.
Brasiliano CCA, Dantas FP, Gheyi HR, Favaro BF, Belém GC, Ferreira CSA (2006). Yield and fruit quality of industrial tomato under saline irrigation. Scientia Agricola 63(2):146-152. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162006000200006
Brugarolas M, Martínez-Carrasco L, Martínez-Poveda A, Ruiz JJ (2009). A competitive strategy for vegetable products: traditional varieties of tomato in the local market. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 7(2):294-304. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2009072-420
Caro M, Cruz V, Cuartero J, Estañ MT, Bolarin MC (1991). Salinity tolerance of normal-fruited and cherry tomato cultivars. Plant and Soil 136:249-255. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02150056
Casals MJ, Marti RR, Casañas AF, Cebolla CJ (2015). Sugar-and-acid profile of Penjar tomatoes and its evolution during storage. Scientia Agricola 72(4):314-321. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-9016-2014-0311
Coban A, Akhoundnejad Y, Dere S, Dasgan HY (2020). Impact of salt-tolerant rootstock on the enhancement of sensitive tomato plant responses to salinity. HortScience 55(1):35-39. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14476-19
Cruz V, Cuartero J (1990). Effects of salinity at several developmental stages of six genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon spp.). In: Cuartero, J, Gomez-Guillamon ML, Fernández-Muñoz R (Eds). Proceedings of XIth Eucarpia Meeting on Tomato Genetics and Breeding, Eucarpia Tomato 90, Málaga, Spain pp 81-86.
Cuartero J, Fernández-Muñoz R (1999). Tomato and salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 78(1-4):83-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00191-5
D’Amico ML, Izzo R, Tognoni F, Pardossi A, Navari-Izzo F (2003). Application of diluted sea water to soilless culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): Effects on plant growth, yield, fruit quality and antioxidant capacity. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 1:112-116. https://doi.org/10.1234/4.2003.350
Dasgan HY, Aktas H, Abak K, Cakmak I (2002). Determination of screening techniques to salinity tolerance in tomatoes and investigation of genotype responses. Plant Science 163(4):695-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(02)00091-2
Di Gioia F, Signore A, Serio F, Santamaria P (2013). Grafting improves tomato salinity tolerance through sodium partitioning within the shoot. HortScience 48(7):855-862. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.48.7.855
Eckhard G, Horst WJ, Neumann E (2012). Adaptation of plants to adverse chemical soil conditions. In: Marschner P (Ed). Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd ed. Academic Press, London, UK pp 409-472.
Foolad MR (2007). Current status of breeding tomatoes for salt and drought tolerance. In: Jenks MA, Hasegawa PM, Jain SM (Eds). Advances in molecular breeding toward drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands pp 669-700.
Foolad MR, Lin GY (1997). Absence of a genetic relationship between salt tolerance during seed germination and vegetative growth in tomato. Plant Breeding 116(4):363-367. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0523.1997.tb01013.x
Grierson D, Kader AA (1986). Fruit ripening and quality. In: Atherton, JG, Rudich J (Eds). The tomato crop. A scientific basis for improvement. Chapman & Hall, London, UK pp 241-280.
Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000). Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 51:463-499. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.51.1.463
Hossain MM, Nonami H (2010). Effects of water flow from the xylem on the growth-induced water potential and the growth-effect turgor associated with enlarging tomato fruit. Environment Control in Biology 48(3):101-116. https://doi.org/10.2525/ecb.48.101
Hossain MM, Nonami H (2011). Fruit growth of tomato associated with water uptake and cell expansion. Journal of Agricultural Technology 7(4):1049-1062.
Hossain MM, Nonami H (2012). Effect of salt stress on physiological response of tomato fruit grown in hydroponic culture system. Horticultural Science 39:26-32. https://doi.org/10.17221/63/2011-HORTSCI
Jenkins JA (1948). The origin of the cultivated tomato. Economic Botany 2(4):379-392.
Johnson RW, Dixon MA, Lee DR (1992). Water relations of the tomato during fruit growth. Plant, Cell Environment 15(8):947-953. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1992.tb01027.x
Kafkafi U (1991). Root growth under stress. Salinity. In: Waisel E, Kafkafi U (Eds). Plant roots: The hidden half. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA pp 375-391.
Ladeiro B (2012). Saline agriculture in the 21st century: Using salt contaminated resources to cope food requirements. Journal of Botany 2012:310705. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/310705
Magán JJ, Gallardo M, Thompson RB, Lorenzo P (2008). Effects of salinity on fruit yield and quality of tomato grown in soil-less culture in greenhouses in Mediterranean climatic conditions. Agricultural Water Management 95(9):1041-1055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2008.03.011
Maggio A, Raimondi G, Martino A, de Pascale S (2007). Salt stress response in tomato beyond the salinity tolerance threshold. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59(3):276-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2006.02.002
Manaa A, Ben-Ahmed H, Valot B, Bouchet JP, Aschi-Smiti S, Causse M, Faurobert M (2011). Salt and genotype impact on plant physiology and root proteome variations in tomato. Journal of Experimental Botany 62(8):2797-2813. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq460
Massaretto IL, Albaladejo I, Purgatto E, Flores FB, Plasencia F, Egea-Fernández JM, ... Egea I (2018) Recovering tomato landraces to simultaneously improve fruit yield and nutritional quality against salt stress. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:1778. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01778
Mitchell JP, Shennan C, Grattan SR, May DM (1991). Tomato fruit yield and quality under water deficit and salinity. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science 116(2):215-221. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.116.2.215
Moles TM, de Brito FR, Mariotti L, Pompeiano A, Lupini A, Incrocci L, … Santelia D (2019) Salinity in autumn-winter season and fruit quality of tomato landraces. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:1078. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01078
Moles TM, Pompeiano A, Reyes TH, Scartazza A, Guglielminetti L (2016). The efficient physiological strategy of a tomato landrace in response to short-term salinity stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 109:262-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.10.008
Munns R, Tester M (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59:651-681. https://doi.org/10. 1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092911
Nonami H, Hossain MM (2010). Superposition of the transpiration-induced water potential and the growth-induced water potential associated with expanding tomato leaves. Environment Control in Biology 48(3):117-125. https://doi.org/10.2525/ecb.48.117
Nouck AE, Taffouo VD, Tsoata E, Dibong DS, Nguemezi ST, Gouado I, Youmbi E (2016). Growth, biochemical constituents, micronutrient uptake and yield response of six tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars grown under salinity stress. Journal of Agronomy 15(2):58-67. https://doi.org/10.3923/ja.2016.58.67
Oztekin GB, Tuzel Y (2011). Comparative salinity responses among tomato genotypes and rootstocks. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(6):2665-2672.
Parvin K, Ahamed KU, Islam MM, Haque MN (2015). Response of tomato plant under salt stress: Role of exogenous calcium. Journal of Plant Sciences 10(6):222-233. https://doi.org/10.3923/jps.2015.222.233
Pérez-Alfocea F, Estañ MT, Caro M, Bolarín MC (1993). Response of tomato cultivars to salinity. Plant and Soil 150:203-211. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00013017
Pompeiano A, Di Patrizio E, Volterrani M, Scartazza A, Guglielminetti L (2016). Growth responses and physiological traits of seashore paspalum subjected to short-term salinity stress and recovery. Agricultural Water Management 163:57-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.09.004
Rouphael Y, Cardarelli M, Bassal A, Leonardi C, Giuffrida F, Colla G (2012). Vegetable quality as affected by genetic, agronomic and environmental factors. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 10:680-688. https://doi.org/10.1234/4.2012.3485
Saito T, Matsukura C, Ban Y, Shoji K, Sugiyama M, Fukuda N, Nishimura S (2008). Salinity stress affects assimilate metabolism at the gene-expression level during fruit development and improves fruit quality in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 77(1):61-68. https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.77.61
Sanjuan-Lara F, Ramírez-Vallejo P, Sánchez-García P, Sandoval-Villa M, Livera-Muñoz M, Carrillo-Rodríguez JC, Perales-Segovia C (2015). Tolerancia de líneas nativas de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) a la salinidad con NaCl [Tolerance of native tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) lines to NaCl salinity]. Interciencia 40(10):704-709.
SAS Institute Inc. (2011). SAS/STAT Users Guide. Version 9.3. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N. C., USA.
Singh J, Sastry EV, Singh V (2012). Effect of salinity on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during seed germination stage. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 18(1):45-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-011-0097-z
Southgate DA (1976). Determination of food carbohydrates. Applied Science Publishers. London, UK.
Steiner AA (1984). The universal nutrient solution, In: Proceedings of the International Society for Soilless Culture. Sixth International Congress on Soilless Culture. Lunteren, The Netherlands. pp 633-650.
Sumalan RM, Ciulca SI, Poiana MA, Moigradean D, Radulov I, Negrea M, … Sumalan RL (2020). The antioxidant profile evaluation of some tomato landraces with soil salinity tolerance correlated with high nutraceutical and functional value. Agronomy 2020(10):500. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040500
Tanji KK, Wallender WW (2012). Nature and extent of agricultural salinity and sodicity. In: Wallender WW, Tanji KK (Eds). Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands pp 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784411698.ch01
Tardieu F, Granier C, Muller B (2011). Water deficit and growth. Co-ordinating processes without an orchestrator? Current Opinion in Plant Biology 14(3):283-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2011.02.002
Tuna AL, Kaya C, Ashraf M, Altunlu H, Yokas I, Yagmur B (2007). The effects of calcium sulphate on growth, membrane stability and nutrient uptake of tomato plants grown under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59(2):173-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.12.007
Velasco-Alvarado MJ, Lobato-Ortiz R, García-Zavala JJ, Castro-Brindis R, Cruz-Izquierdo S, Corona-Torres T, Moedano-Mariano MK (2017). Mexican native tomatoes as rootstocks to increase fruit yield. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 77(3):187-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392017000300187
Windt CW, Gerkema E, Van HA (2009). Most water in the tomato truss is imported through the xylem, not the phloem: A nuclear magnetic resonance flow imaging study. Plant Physiology 151:830-842. https://doi.org/ 10.1104/pp.109.141044
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.