Concurrent detection of five Yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDVs) in wheat in Mardin (Turkey) and phylogenetic relationship of BYDV-PAV

  • Abdulselam KARAOZAN Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Van
  • Mustafa USTA Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Van
Keywords: cloning; mardin; molecular characterization; multiplex RT-PCR; survey; wheat


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a natural host of many viruses. Yellow dwarf viruses belonging to the Luteoviridae family are important virus species that cause economic loss by restricting wheat production worldwide. Surveys were conducted in 2017 to determine Yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-PAV, BYDV-MAV, BYDV-SGV, BYDV-RMV, and CYDV-RPV) and their infection rates in wheat production areas in Mardin province. 400 fresh leaf samples collected were tested by  Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR). The overall infection rate was found to be 3%. BYDV-PAV has been identified as the most widespread virus with a 2.5% presence rate. It was found out that BYDV-SGV, CYDV-RPV, and BYDV-RMV infections were lower, with rates of 1.75%, 0.5% and 0.25% respectively. In the current study, double infections were detected in 8 samples. The overall infection rate of the detected viruses (BYDV-PAV, BYDV-SGV, CYDV-RPV, BYDV-RMV) was found to be lower than the records reported in previous similar studies. No BYDV-MAV infection was found in any of the wheat samples tested. The cDNA of the coat protein (CP) gene of a BYDV-PAV isolate randomly selected from virus-positive samples was cloned, bidirectionally sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship revealed. According to the phylogenetic analysis with 19 different isolates in the NCBI database of BYDV-PAV Mardin isolate, it showed the highest genetic similarity by 95.52% with the Germany isolate (KY634926) while the lowest similarity rate was 89.22% with the Germany and Pakistan isolates (KY634886 and JQ811489). The presence of BYDV-PAV, BYDV-SGV, CYDV-RPV, and BYDV-RMV were reported for the first time with this survey study conducted in Mardin.


Metrics Loading ...


Adhikari A, Lockhart BE, Ganiger M, Byamukama E, Tande C, Smith MJ, Dill-Macky R (2020). Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV is the dominant species causing Barley yellow dwarf disease in South Dakota and Minnesota. Crop Protection 134:105171.

Anonim (1996). Türk tarımında buğdayın yeri ve önemi. İstanbul Ticaret Odası, İstanbul. Erişim tarihi: 01.02.2016.

Áy Z, Kerényi Z, Takács A, Papp M, Petróczi IM, Gáborjányi R, ... Kertész Z (2008). Detection of cereal viruses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by serological and molecular methods. Cereal Research Communications 36(2):215-224.

Aydın Ö (2017). Determinatin of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs)’es in rice paddies ın the Trakya region of Turkey. Namık Kemal University, Institute of Natural and Applied Scinces, MSc. Thesis.

Bakardjieva N, Krasteva C, Habekuss A, Rabenstein F (2006). Detection of cereal viruses and study of aphid population in Bulgaria. Institute of Plant Protection 43:499-501.

Bisnieks M, Kvarnheden A, Sigvald R, Valkonen JPT (2004). Molecular diversity of the coat proteinencoding region of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV from Latvia and Sweden. Archives of Virology 149:843-853.

Bora T, Karaca I (1970). Kültür bitkilerinde hastalığın ve zararın ölçülmesi. EGE Üniv. Matb. No: 167, Bornova, pp 43.

Bukvayova N, Henselova M, Vajcikova V, Kormanova T (2006). Occurence of dwarf virus of winter wheat and barley in several regions of Slovakia during the growing seasons 2001-2004. Plant Soil and Environment 52(9):392-401


Chain F, Riault G, Jacquot E, Trottet M (2006). Field trial of serially passaged isolates of BYDV-PAV overcoming resistance derived from Thinopyrum intermedium in wheat. Plant Breeding 125(3):211-216.

Chare ER, Holmes EC (2006). A phylogenetic survey of recombination frequency in plant RNA viruses. Archives of Virology 151(5):933-946.

Chay CA, Smith DM, Vaughan R, Gray SM (1996). Diversity among isolates within the PAV serotype of Barley yellow dwarf virus. Phytopathology 86:370-377.

Conti MC, D’Arcy CJ, Jedlinski H, Burnett PA (1990). The “Yellow Plague” of cereals, barley yellow dwarf. In: World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf. Burnett PA (Eds). CIMMYT, Mexico City D.F. pp 1-6.

Deb M, Anderson JM (2008). Development of a multiplexed PCR detection method for Barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses, wheat spindle streak virus, wheat streak mosaic virus and Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus. Journal of Virological Methods 148:17-24.

Deligöz İ, Caner Kahveci Y, Akyol H (2011). Preliminary investigations of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV in wheat fields of Samsun and Amasya Provinces in Turkey. Bitki Koruma Bülteni 51(2):187-193.

Domier LL (2012). Family Luteoviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (Eds). Virus taxonomy. 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier/Academic Press. Oxford, UK: pp 1045-1053.

Domier LL (2008). Barley yellow dwarf viruses. Encyclopedia of Virology 3:279-286.

El-Muadhidi MA, Makkouk KM, Kumari SG, Jerjess M, Murad SS, Mustafa RR, Tarik F (2001). Survey for legume and cereal viruses in Iraq. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 40(3):224-233.

El-Yamani M, Hill JH (1990). Identification and importance of Barley yellow dwarf virus in Morocco. Plant Disease 74:291-294.

Erkan E, Yılmaz NDK (2009). Determination of virus diseases on wheat growing areas of Samsun Province. Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 24(2): 67-75.

FAO (2018). Preliminary data now available for selected countries an products. Erişim Tarihi. Retrieved 2018 March 03 from

Foissac L, Gentit P, Svanetia-Dumas L, Dulucq MJ, Candresse T (2001). Polyvalent detection of fruit tree tricho, capillo, and foveaviruses by nested RT-PCR using degenerated and inosine-containing primers (PDO RT-PCR). Acta Horticulturae 550:37-43.

Gould FW, Shaw RB (1983). Grass systematics. Brittonia 35(3):301-301.

Gray SM, Chapin JW, Smith DM, Banerjee N, Thomas JS (1998). Barley yellow dwarf luteoviruses and their predominant aphid vectors in winter wheat grown in South Carolina. Plant Disease 82:1328-1333.

Halbert SE, Connelly BJ, Lister RM, Klein RE, Bishop GW (1992). Vector specificity of Barley yellow dwarf virus serotypes and variants in southwestern Idaho. Annals of Applied Biology 121(1):123-132.

Hamamcı G (2012). Investigations on the determination of some bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar reactions against prevailing virus diseases in Tekirdag provinces in Turkey. Namık Kemal University, Institute of Natural And Applied Scinces, MSc. Thesis

Hamdi I, Najar A, Ghanem HB, Varsani A, Jemmali A (2020). First report of Barley yellow dwarf virus in maize in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:227.

Hassan NO, Usta M, Al-Maaroof EM, Güller A (2018). The incidence of Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) in wheat crops in Diyarbakir (Turkey) and sequence characterization of BYDV-PAV. YYU Journal of Agricultural Science 28: 140-149.

Hogenhout SA, Ammar D, Whitfield AE, Redinbaugh, MG (2008). Insect vector interactions with persistently transmitted viruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 46:327-359.

İlbağı H, Çıtır A, Yorgancı Ü (2005). Occurrence of virus infections on cereal crops and their identifications in the Trakya region of Turkey. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz / Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 112:313-320.

İlbağı H, Çıtır A, Kara A, Uysal M (2014). First report of new weed host species Juncus compressus and Geranium dissectum for Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV on cereals in the Trakya Region of Turkey. Proceedings of The Fifth Plant Protection Congress of Turkey, 3-5 February, Antalya pp 281.

Ilbağı H, Çıtır A, Kara A, Uysal M, Azzouz Olden F (2019). First Report of BYDVs on dicotyledonous weeds in Turkey. Cereal Research Communications 47(2):292-303.

İlbağı H, Pocsai E, Çıtır A, Muranyı I, Vida G, Korkut ZK (2003). Results of two years study on incidence of Barley yellow dwarf viruses, cereal yellow dwarf virus RPV and wheat dwarf virus in Turkey. 3rd International Plant Protection Symposium at Debrecen University, 15-16 October, Debrecen-Hungary, pp 53-63.

İlbağı H (2017). Epidemic of yellow dwarf virus diseases in cereal growing areas and their control. Bitki Koruma Bülteni 57(3):317-335.

İlbağı H, Rabenstein F, Habekuss A, Ordon F, Çıtır A, Cebeci O, Budak H (2008). Molecular, serological and aphid transmission studies of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.). Cereal Research Communications 36:225-234.

Kendall DA, George S, Smith BD (1996). Occurrence of Barley yellow dwarf viruses in some common grasses (Gramineae) in south west England. Plant Pathology 45(1):29-37.

Köklü G (2004). Occurrence of cereal viruses on wheat in Tekirdag, Turkey. Phytoprotection 85:19- 25.

Krueger EN, Beckett R, Gray SM, Miller WA (2013). The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses. Frontiers Microbiology 4:205.

Kumari SG, Muharram I, Makkouk KM, Al-Ansi A, El-Pasha RWA, Al-Motwkel WA, Kassem AH (2006). Identification of viral diseases affecting barley and bread wheat crops in Yemen. Australasian Plant Pathology 35(5):563-568.

Kün E (1996). Tahıllar-I (Serin iklim Tahılları). Ankara Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, Yayın No: 1451, Ankara.

Lister MR, Ranieri R (1995). Distribution and economic importance of Barley yellow dwarf. In: D’Arcy CJ, Burnett PA (Eds.). Barley yellow dwarf: 40 years of progress. APS Press, MN. pp 29-53.

Malmstrom CM, Shu R (2004). Multiplexed RT-PCR for streamlined detection and separation of barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses. Journal of Virological Methods 120:69-78.

Mangwende T, Wang ML, Borth W, Hu J, Moore PH, Mirkov ET, Albert HH (2009). The P0 gene of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus encodesan RNA silencing suppressor with unique activities. Virology 384:38-50.

Nancarrow N, Constable FE, Finlay KJ, Freeman AJ, Rodoni BC, Trebicki P, ... Luck JE (2014). The effect of elevated temperature on Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in wheat. Virus Research 186:97-103.

Oswald JW, Houston BR (1951). A new virus disease of cereals, transmissible by aphids. Plant Disease Reports 35:471-475.

Pakdel A, Afsharifar A, Niazi A, Almasi R, Izadpanah K (2010). Distribution of cereal luteoviruses and molecular diversity of BYDV-PAV isolates in Central and Southern Iran: Proposal of a new species in the genus Luteovirus. Journal of Phytopathology 158:357-364.

Parizoto G, Rebonatto A, Schons J, Lau D (2013). Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in Brazil: Seasonal fluctuation and biological characteristics. Tropical Plant Pathology 38(1):11-19.

Peter KA, Gildow F, Palukaitis P, Gray SM (2009). The C terminus of the Polerovirus P5 readthrough domain limits virus infection to the phloem. Journal of Virology 83:5419-5429.

Pocsai E, Çıtır A, İlbağı H, Köklü G, Muranyi I, Vida G, Korkut ZK (2003). Incidence of Barley yellow dwarf viruses, cereal yellow dwarf virus and wheat dwarf virus in cereal growing areas of Turkey. ournal for Agricultural Sciences 11:583-591.

Pokorny R (2006). Occurrence of viruses of the family Luteoviridae on maize and some annual weed grasses in the Czech Republic. Cereal Research Communications 34(2-3):1087-1092.

Rastgou M, Khatabi B, Kvarnheden A, Izadpanah K (2005). Relationships of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV from Iran with viruses of the family Luteoviridae. European Journal of Plant Pathology 113(3):321-326.

Robertson N, French R (2007). Genetic analysis of a novel Alaska Barley yellow dwarf virus in the family Luteoviridae. Archives of Virology 152(2):369-382. https://doi.org10.1007/s00705-006-0846-4

Rybicki EP (2015). A top ten list for economically important plant viruses. Archives of Virology 160(1):17-20.

Sanjuán R, Nebot MR, Chirico N, Mansky LM, Belshaw R (2010). Viral mutation rates. Journal of Virology 84 (19):9733-9748.

Sathees K (2015). Sequence characterization of Barley yellow dwarf virus–OYV. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet/Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Plant Biology-Master’s programme.

Siddiqui NN, Ilyas M, Mansoor S, Azhar A, Saeed M (2011). Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of coat protein of Barley yellow dwarf virus ısolates from different regions of Pakistan. Journal of Phytopathology 160(1):13-18. Htpps://

Svanella-Dumas L, Candresse T, Hulle M, Marais A (2013). Distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands and characterization of two new Luteovirus species. PloS One 8(6):e67231.

Tao Y, Man J, DevWu Y (2012). Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of wheat viruses and a phytoplasma in China. Archives of Virology 157:1261-1267.

Toksöz Y, Yılmaz NDK (2016). Determination of viruses causing infection in corn (Zea mays L.) fields in Samsun province. Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 31(2):199-206.

TUIK (2018). Agricultural product statistics. Retrieved 2018 march 09 from

Usta M, Sipahioglu HM, Guller A (2020). Incidence and molecular characterisation of viruses ınfecting wheat in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 29(9):7257-7266.

Uzunoğulları N, Gümüş M (2017). Historical development and current state of virus taxanomy. Bahçe 46(2):51-57.

Wu B, Blanchard-Letort A, Liu Y, Zhou G, Wang X, Santiago F, Elena SF (2011). Dynamics of molecular evolution and phylogeography of Barley yellow dwarf virus- PAV. PLoS One 6(2):e16896.

How to Cite
KARAOZAN, A., & USTA, M. (2020). Concurrent detection of five Yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDVs) in wheat in Mardin (Turkey) and phylogenetic relationship of BYDV-PAV. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(4), 1862-1872.
Research Articles