Natural phytoplasma infections on fruit, vegetable and weed plants at the same agroecosystem and their molecular properties
The phytoplasma associated diseases are an emerging threat to fruit and vegetable crops leading severe yield losses worldwide. Pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees, with symptoms of severe reddening, dwarfing and shoot proliferation were observed in pear orchards of Malatya province of Turkey. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown nearby the symptomatic pear orchard displaying leaf rolling, severe flower sterility and purple leaves were observed at the same agroecosystem. To verify the presence and diversity of phytoplasmas, symptomatic pears and tomatoes were sampled and weeds nearby the symptomatic plants were collected. Total plant DNA was purified from midrib of collected leaves using a commercial kit. The DNA samples were analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using universal primer pairs to amplify 16S rDNA fragments. The phytoplasmas detected in collected samples were differed according to the host. Here we detected and characterized ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ belonging to apple proliferation group (subgroup 16SrX-C) from a pear tree, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ belonging to clover proliferation group (subgroup 16SrVI-A) from a weed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ belonging to the stolbur phytoplasma group (subgroup 16SrXII-A) from a tomato plant. Direct sequencing of PCR products verified the phytoplasmal nature of the infections. The occurrence of ‘Ca. P. trifolii’ on A. retroflexus is the first report for the world. The irregular presence of the phytoplasmas in fruit and vegetable crops and weeds indicates continuous spread of the phytoplasmas threatening the new crops and new horizons.
Alp Ş, Usta M, Sipahioğlu HM, Güller A (2016). First report of “Candidatus Phytoplasma solani” on a new host marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Turkish Journal Agriculture and Forestry 40:311-318. https://doi:10.3906/tar-1506-58
Amiri MM, Faghihi MM, Samavi S, Askari SM, Bagheri A, Rowshan GH (2018). First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii'-related strain associated with rapeseed witches' broom in Iran. New Disease Reports 38:19. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.01
Anfoka GH, Khalil AB, Fattash I (2003). Detection and molecular characterization of a phytoplasma associated with big bud disease of tomatoes in Jordan. Journal of Phytopathology 151(4):223-227. https://doi:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2003.00709.x
Çağlar BK, Elbeaino T, Küsek M, Pehlivan D, Fidan H, Portakaldalı M (2010). Stolbur phytoplasma infections in potato and tomato plants from different locations in Turkey. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology 39:1-3.
Bertaccini A (2007). Phytoplasmas: diversity, taxonomy, and epidemiology. Frontiers Bioscience 1:12:673-89.
Dale JL, Smith LD (1975). Mycoplasmalike bodies observed in tomato plants with big bud in Arkansas. Plant Disease Reporter 59:455-458.
Gazel M, Ulubaş Serçe, Ç, Çağlayan K, Öztürk H (2007). Detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ in Turkey. Bulletin of Insectology 60(2):125-126.
Gazel M, Çaglayan K, Baspinar H, Mejia JF, Paltrinieri S, Bertaccini A, Contaldo N (2015). Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in pomegranate trees with yellows symptoms. Journal of Phytopathology 164:136-140. https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12401
Gazel M, Çağlayan K, Başpınar H, Mejia JF, Paltrinieri S,Bertaccini A,Contaldo N (2016). Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in pomegranate trees with yellows symptoms. Journal of Phytopathology 164:136-140.
Granett AL, Provvidenti R (1974). Tomato big bud in New York State. Plant Disease Reporter 58:211-214.
Heinrich M, Simona B, Caprara L, Arthofer W, Strommer S, Hanzer V, … da Câmara Machado ML (2001). Improved detection method for fruit tree phytoplasmas. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 19:169-179.
Hogenhout SA (2009) Plant pathogens, minor (Phytoplasmas). In: Schaechter M (Ed). Encyclopedia of Microbiology (Third Edition), Academic Press, San Diego, USA, pp 678-688 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373944-5.00348-5.
Ikten C, Catal M, Yol E, Ustun R, Furat S, Toker C, Uzun B (2014). Molecular identification, characterization and transmission of phytoplasmas associated with sesame phyllody in Turkey. European Journal of Plant Pathology 139: 217-229. https://doi 10.1007/s10658-014-0384
Keskin F, Kaya I, Usta M, Demir I, Sipahioglu HM, Nemli Y (2017). Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the its region of nuclear ribosomal DNA for species identification in dodders (Cuscuta; Convolvulaceae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 19:1447-1451.
Khan AJ, Botti S, Al-Subhi AM, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Bertaccini AF (2002). Molecular identification of a new phytoplasma associated with alfalfa witches’-broom in Oman, Phytopathology 92(10):1038-47. https://doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.10.1038
Lee IM, Hammond RW, Davis RE, Gundersen DE (1993). Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmalike organism. Phytopathology 83:834-842.
Lee IM, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Davis RE, Bartoszyk IM (1998a). Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 48:1153-1169.
Lee IM, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Bertaccini A (1998b). Phytoplasma: ecology and genomic diversity. Phytopathology 88:1359-1366.
Lee IM, Davis RE, Gundersen-Rindal DE (2000). Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annual Review of Microbiology 54:221-255.
Lee IM, Zhao Y, Davis RE, Wei W, Martini M (2007). Prospects of DNA-based systems for differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas. Bulletin of Insectology 60:239-244.
Marcone C, Ragozzino A, Seemuller E (1997). Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in yellows-diseased weeds in Italy. Plant Pathology 46:530-537.
Oksal HD, Apak Kaya F, Oksal E, Tursun N, Sipahioglu HM (2017). Detection and molecular characterization of two ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ isolates infecting peppers at the same ecological niche. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 19(6):1372-1378. https://doi:10.17957/IJAB/15.0420
Orel Canik D, Paltrinieri S, Ertunç F, Bertaccini A (2019). Molecular diversity of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species in pome and stone fruits in Turkey. Plant Protection Bulletin 59(1):7-14. https://doi.org/10.16955/bitkorb.508890
Özdemir N, Saygılı H (2012). Batı Anadolu Bölgesi domates üretim alanlarında görülen stolbur hastalığının tohumla taşınıp taşınmadığı ile ilgili bir araştırma [A study on the transmission with the seed of stolbur disease in Western Anatolia tomato areas]. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Uludag University 26(1):63-72.
Özdemir N, Saygılı H, Sahin F, Karsavuran Y, Bayrak O F, Oral B (2009). Host range and genetic characterization of a phytoplasma causing tomato stolbur disease in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae 808:255-262.
Priya M, Chaturvedi Y, Rao GP, Raj SK (2010). First report of phytoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' (16Sr VI) group associated with leaf yellows of Calotropis gigantea in India. New Disease Reporter 22:29. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2010.022.029
Raj SK, Snehi SK, Kumar S, Khan MS (2009). First finding of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' (16SrVI group) associated with little leaf disease of Datura inoxia in India. Plant Pathology 58:791. https:// doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02053.x
Reckhaus P, Reckhaus S, Adamou I (1988). Stolbur disease of tomato plants in Niger. Plant Disease 72(3):268.
Serçe Ç, Gazel M, Çaglayan K, Baş, M, Son, L (2006). Phytoplasma diseases of fruit trees in germplasm and commercial orchards in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology 88 (2):179-185.
Serrone P, Marzachì C, Bragaloni M, Galeffi P (2001). Phytoplasma infection of tomato in central Italy. Phytopathologie Mediterrenea 40:137-142.
Sertkaya G, Martini M, Ermacora P, Musetti R, Osler R (2005).Detection and characterization of phytoplasmas in diseased stone fruits and pear by PCR-RFLP analysis in Turkey. Phytoparasitica 33:380-390.
Sertkaya G, Martini M, Musetti R, Osler R (2007). Detection and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas infecting sesame and solanaceous crops in Turkey. Bulletin of Insectology 60(2):141-142.
Shaw ME, Kirkpatrick BC, Golino DA (1993). The beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent causes tomato big bud disease in California. Plant Disease 77:290-295.
Smart CD, Schneider B, Blomquist NCL, Guerra LJ, Harrison NA, Ahrens U, … Kirckpatrick BC (1996). Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:2988-2993.
Usta M, Güller A, Sipahioğlu HM (2017a). Detection and characterization of two phytoplasma lineages on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) with same symptomatology based on virtual RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of 16s rDNA. Yüzüncü Yıl University Journal of Agricultural Sciences 27:299-308.
Usta M, Güller A, Sipahioğlu HM (2017b). Characterization and identification of important phytoplasma diseases in Solanacea family in Van province. II. International Igdir Symposium, 9-10 October Iğdır/Turkey.
Usta M, Güller A, Sipahioglu HM (2018a). Molecular analysis of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' associated with phytoplasma diseases of tomato (PDT) in Turkey. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 20:1991-1996.
Usta, M, Güller A, Sipahioğlu HM (2018b). Türkiye’de ‘Canditatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ için yeni bir konukçu olan armut (Pyrus Communis L.)’taki izolatlarının moleküler karakterizasyonu [Molecular characterization of ‘Canditatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ isolates of pear, a new host for Turkey]. I. International Iğdır Congress on Multidisciplinary Studies. November, 2018 Igdir/Turkey.
Usta M, Güller A, Sipahioğlu HM (2020). Detection, in silico analysis and molecular diversity of phytoplasmas from solanaceous crops in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Botany. (In press).
Varma JP (1979) Occurrence of tomato big bud like disease in Haryana. Science and Culture 45:205-207.
Wei W, Davis RE, Lee IM, Zhao Y (2007a). Computer simulated RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes: identification of ten new phytoplasma groups. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57:1855-1867.
Wei W, Lee I-M, Davis RE, Suo X, Zhao Y (2007b). Virtual RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA sequences identifies new subgroups in the clover proliferation phytoplasma group. Bulletin of Insectology 60:349-350.
Weintraub PG, Beanland LA (2006). Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. Annual Review of Entomology 51:91-111 https://doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.151039
White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor JW (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ, editor.PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications.New York: Academic Press Inc; pp 315-322.
Yaman IKA (1971). Tomato stolbur virus: a new record. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 19(6):140-141.
Zimmermann-Gries S, Klein M (1978). A tomato big bud-like disease of tomatoes in Israel and its association with mycoplasmalike organisms. Plant Disease Reporter 62:590-594.
Copyright (c) 2020 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.