Molecular responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tolerating root rot of trifoliate orange


  • Shen CHENG Yangtze University, College of Horticulture and Gardening, Jingzhou, Hubei 434025 (CN)
  • Li TIAN Yangtze University, College of Horticulture and Gardening, Jingzhou, Hubei 434025 (CN)
  • Ying-Ning ZOU Yangtze University, College of Horticulture and Gardening, Jingzhou, Hubei 434025 (CN)
  • Qiang-Sheng WU Yangtze University, College of Horticulture and Gardening, Jingzhou, Hubei 434025 (CN)
  • Kamil KUČA University of Hradec Kralove, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Hradec Kralove 50003 (CZ)
  • Popy BORA Assam Agricultural University, Department of Plant Pathology, Jorhat (IN)



arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; citrus; pathogen; RNA-Seq


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant disease resistance, while the underlying mechanisms in the molecular levels are not yet known. In this study, five-leaf-old trifoliate orange seedlings were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae for 14 weeks and subsequently were infected by a citrus root rot pathogen Phytophthora parasitica by 7 days. The transcriptome results by Illumina HiSeq 4000 revealed that the percentage of Q30 bases reached 92.99% or above, and 29696 unigenes were annotated in a total of 63531 unigenes. 654 and 103 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were respectively annotated in AMF-inoculated versus non-AMF-inoculated plants under non-infection and infection with P. parasitica, respectively, whilst these DEGs were related to defense mechanisms, signal transduction mechanisms and secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Forty-two genes were functionally annotated as the putative 'defense mechanism', whilst AMF inoculation induced 1 gene down-regulated and 3 genes up-regulated under P. parasitica infection. AMF inoculation stimulated more genes linked to signal transduction mechanism down-regulated than non-AMF plants. Eight genes were involved in secondary metabolites biosynthesis in AMF versus non-AMF seedlings under P. parasitica-infection conditions. Such transcriptome database provided total information in the molecular levels regarding mycorrhizal roles in tolerating Phytophthora parasitica infection.


Bodker L, Kjoller R, Rosendahl S (1998). Effect of phosphate and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas (Pisum sativum) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches. Mycorrhiza 8:169-174.

Cicatelli A, Lingua G, Todeschini V, Biondi S, Torrigiani P, Castiglione S (2012). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modulate the leaf transcriptome of a populus alba l. clone grown on a zinc and copper-contaminated soil. Environmental and Experimental Botany 75:25-35.

Dao TT, Linthorst HJ, Verpoort R (2011). Chalcone synthase and its functions in plant resistance. Phytochemistry Reviews 10:397-412.

Ebrahim S, Usha K, Singh B (2011). Pathogeneisi-related (PR)-proteins: Chinase and β-1,3-glucanase in defense mechanism against malformation in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Scientia Horticulturae 130:847-852.

Esquerré-Tugayé MT, Boudart G, Dumas B (2000). Cell wall degrading enzymes, inhibitory proteins, and oligosaccharides participate in the molecular dialogue between plants and pathogens. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 38:157-163.

Gao L, Wang Y, Li Z, Zhang H, Ye J, Li G (2016). Gene expression changes during the Gummosis development of peach shoots in response to Lasiodiplodia theobromae infection using RNA-Seq. Frontiers in Physiology 7:170.

Gao WQ, Lu LH, Srivastava AK, Wu QS, Kuča K (2020). Effects of mycorrhizae on physiological responses and relevant gene expression of peach affected by replant disease. Agronomy 10:186.

He JD, Chi GG, Zou YN, Shu B, Wu QS, Srivastava AK, Kuča K (2020). Contribution of glomalin-related soil proteins to soil organic carbon in trifoliate orange. Applied Soil Ecology 154:103592.

He JD, Dong T, Wu HH, Zou YN, Wu QS, Kuča K (2019). Mycorrhizas induce diverse responses of root TIP aquaporin gene expression to drought stress in trifoliate orange. Scientia Horticulturae 243:64-69.

Hu N, Tu XR, Li KT, Ding H, Li H, Zhang HW, Tu GQ, Huang L (2017). Changes in protein content and chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities of rice with blast resistance induced by Ag-antibiotic 702. Plant Diseases and Pests 8:33-36.

Kaur N, Gupta AK (2005). Signal transduction pathways under abiotic stress in plants. Current Science 88:1771-1780.

Kawagoe Y, Shiraishi S, Kondo H, Yamamoto S, Aoki Y, Suzuki S (2015). Cyclic lipopetide iturin a structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 460:1015-1020.

Lambais MR, Mehdy MC (2010). Spatial distribution of chitinases and β-1,3-glucanase transcripts in bean arbuscular mycorrhizal roots under low and high soil phosphate conditions. New Phytologist 140:33-42.

Li Z, Wang YT, Gao L, Wang F, Ye JL, Li GH (2014). Biochemical changes and defense responses during the development of peach gummosis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae. European Journal of Plant Pathology 138:195-207.

Liu F, Xiong-Chang OU, Wei JG, Zhan RL, Chang JM (2017). Interaction mechanism between mango and Fusarium mangiferae on transcriptomes. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 47:224-233.

Ozgonen H, Akgul DS, Erkilic A (2010). The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on yield and stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sace. in peanut. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5:128-132.

Slezack S, Dumas-Gaudot E, Rosendahl S, Kjoller R, Paynot M, Negrel J, Gianinazzi S (1999). Endoproteolytic activities in pea roots inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and/or Aphanomyces euteiches in relation to bioprotection. New Phytologist 142:517-529.

Tian L, Wu QS, Kuča K, Rahman MH (2018). Responses of four citrus plants to Phytophthora-induced root rot. Sains Malaysiana 47:1693-1700.

Ueda H, Kugimiya S, Tabata J, Kitamoto H, Mitsuhara I (2019). Accumulation of salicylic acid in tomato plant under biological stress affects oviposition preference of bemisia tabaci. Journal of Plant Interactions 14:73-78.

Vangelisti A, Natali L, Bernardi R, Sbrana C, Turrini A, Hassani-Pak K ... Giordani T (2018). Transcriptome changes induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) roots. Scientific Reports 8:4.

Ward JA, Weber CA (2012). Comparative RNA-Seq for the investigation of resistance to Phytophthora root rot in the red raspberry ‘Latham’. Acta Horticulturae 946:67-72.

Wu QS, He JD, Srivastava AK, Zou YN, Kuča K (2019). Mycorrhizas enhance drought tolerance of citrus by altering root fatty acid compositions and their saturation levels. Tree Physiology 39:1149-1158.

Xie MM, Zhang YC, Liu LP, Zou YN, Wu QS, Kuča K (2019). Mycorrhiza regulates signal substance levels and pathogen defense gene expression to resist citrus canker. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 47:1161-1167.

Xu ML, Korban SS (2002). A cluster of four receptor-like genes resides in the vf locus that confers resistances to apple scab disease. Genetics 162:1995-2006.

Yap YK, Kodama Y, Waller F, Chung KM, Ueda H, Nakamura K, … Sano H (2005). Activation of a novel transcription factor through phosphorylation by WIPK, a wound-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase in tobacco plants. Plant Physiology 139: 127-137.

Zhang F, Zou YN, Wu QS, Kuča K (2020). Arbuscular mycorrhizas modulate root polyamine metabolism to enhance drought tolerance of trifoliate orange. Environmental and Experimental Botany 171:103962.

Zhang YC, Zou YN, Liu LP, Wu QS (2019). Common mycorrhizal networks activate salicylic acid defense responses of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata). Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 61:1099-1111.




How to Cite

CHENG, S., TIAN, L., ZOU, Y.-N., WU, Q.-S., KUČA, K., & BORA, P. (2020). Molecular responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tolerating root rot of trifoliate orange. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(2), 558–571.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha48211916

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>