Response of oil flax varieties to abiotic conditions of the Middle Cis-Ural region by formation of seed yield
Studying the reaction to the abiotic conditions of the Middle Urals in 16 varieties of oil flax will allow to adapt the culture: increase its productivity and product quality. As a standard, the variety ‘VNIIMK 620’ was sown. The experiments were laid on sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the grain-grass rotation after winter crops during 2012-2015. During the years of research, the plow layer of the experimental plots had different humus contents - medium and high, mobile phosphorus and exchange potassium - medium and very high, exchange soil acidity - slightly acidic and close to neutral. To a greater extent, by 91.5%, the change in the seed yield of the studied oil flax varieties depended on the abiotic conditions of the growing season; the share of the influence of the genotype of the variety in the formation of seed yield was 3.0%. Meteorological conditions during the years of the experiments were characterized by large fluctuations in the average daily air temperature and the amount of precipitation that fell over the months, in consequence of this the seed yield of flax oil varied in wide range over both varieties and years of study. The most favorable abiotic conditions for the formation of oil flax seeds were formed in 2014, when, during the ripening period of the seeds optimal meteorological conditions have developed with hydro thermic factor of 1.0. This contributed to obtaining the highest seed yield in 2014 - 218 g/m2. On average, over four years of research, the same response to abiotic conditions with seed yield was formed in ‘VNIIMK 620’ varieties from Russia, ‘Clark’ varieties from Holland and ‘Barbara’ from Hungary. The most plastic grade is ‘Clark’ with a plasticity coefficient bi = 1.33. The most stable seed yield is the ‘Norlin’ variety with a stability coefficient of 32.2. Russian varieties ‘LM-96’, ‘N 3829’ and foreign varieties ‘Norlin’, ‘Atalante’ proved to be the most adaptable to cultivation conditions in the agroecological conditions of the Cis-Ural region and can be considered promising in terms used as starting material in the breeding process.
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