Biological activities of in vitro liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. extracts
To overcome the problems in liverwort collecting such as small size and easily mixed with other species in the wild, we have successfully cultivated Marchantia polymorpha L. under in vitro conditions in the previous study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological activities of this in vitro biomass as a confirmation of the sufficient protocol in cultivation this species. Cultured biomass was dried at a temperature of 45-50 oC to constant weight and ground into a fine powder. The coarse powder was extracted with organic solvents of increasing polarization including n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol using the maceration technique. Four extracts were investigated antioxidant (iron reduction power, DPPH), antibacterial (agar diffusion), tyrosinase inhibitory activity, anti-proliferation on MCF-7 cells. Additionally, the presence of natural metabolite groups of the extracts was detected by using specific reagents. For antioxidant activity, ethyl acetate fraction extract had the highest iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging ability with IC50 = 439.31 µg ml-1. All three n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts possessed resistance to the bacterial strain tested. At a concentration of 2 mg ml-1, n-hexane and chloroform extracts had the highest percentage of tyrosinase inhibition (69.54 and 69.10%, respectively). The n-hexane extract is a potent extract that inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells with the lowest IC50 of 38.15 µg ml-1. A preliminary chemical composition survey showed that the cultured biomass liverwort contains many bioactive compounds, particularly the compounds of range of non- and less-polarized fractions.
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