NDT, a new soilless growing system without substrate suitable for Mediterranean conditions

  • Ioannis LYCOSKOUFIS University of Peloponnese, Department of Agriculture, 24100, Antikalamos, Kalamata
  • George MAVROGIANOPOULOS Agricultural University of Athens, Department οf Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Iera Odos 75, 11855, Athens
Keywords: drip irrigation; hydroponic systems; oxygen; root environment; water potential

Abstract

Nutrient film technique (NFT) is characterized by the reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC) in the recirculating nutrient solution along the gully; this is most intense in warm climates like the Mediterranean region. In this case, plant’s roots at the end of gully suffer from oxygen deficiency. The aim of this study was to develop a new soilless system without substrate which eliminates this NFT drawback and the cost of the substrate. Therefore, a new soilless system was designed. This new system associated the continuous drip irrigation along the gully with the recirculation of the nutrient solution and it was defined as Nutrient Drip Technique (NDT). In addition, the root gully was modified and shaped as W to provide better drainage of the nutrient solution in NDT system compared to NFT system. This system was tested for a tomato crop and compared with an NFT system and for a cucumber crop and compared with a media-based perlite and an NFT system. DOC measurements were taken along the gullies of the different systems. The results indicated that DOC of the nutrient solution along the gullies of NDT was higher and more uniform compared to NFT. Both tomato and cucumber plants grown in NDT system had higher Leaf Area Index (LAI) and were more productive compared to the conventional NFT system. Cucumber crop in NDT system had similar growth and productivity as in the perlite system. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was higher in NDT compared to NFT system. Consequently, NDT system provides a better control of the root environment and the independence of porous substrates.

***

In press - Online First. Article has been peer reviewed, accepted for publication and published online without pagination. The article is to be paginated when the complete issue will be ready for publishing (Volume 48, Issue 3, 2020). The article is searchable and citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI). DOI link will become active after the article will be included in the complete issue.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Acuña RA, Bonachela S, Magán JJ, Marfà O, Hernández JH, Cáceres R (2013). Reuse of rockwool slabs and perlite grow-bags in a low-cost greenhouse: Substrates physical properties and crop production. Scientia Horticulturae 160:139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.05.031

Adams P (1981). Nutrient-film culture. Agricultural Water Management 4(4):471-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(81)90035-4

Adams P (2002). Nutritional control in hydroponics. In: Savvas D, Passam H (Eds). Vegetables and Ornamentals. Embryo Publications, Athens, Greece pp 211-262.

Baas R, Wever G, Koolen AJ, Tariku E, Stol KJ (2001). Oxygen supply and consumption in soilless culture: Evaluation of an oxygen simulation model for cucumber. Acta Horticulturae 554:157-164. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.554.16

Bar-Yosef B, Lieth JH (2013). Effects of oxygen concentration in solution and uptake rate by roots on cut roses yield, and nutrients and sugars content in leaves. Scientia Horticulturae 155:49-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.03.002

Bhattarai S, Pendergast L, Midmore D (2006). Root aeration improves yield and water use efficiency of tomato in heavy clay and saline soils. Scientia Horticulturae 108(3):278-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.02.011

Bhattarai S, Su N, Midmore D (2005). Oxygation unlocks yield potentials of crops in oxygen-limited soil environments. Advances in Agronomy 88:313-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(05)88008-3

Carazo N, López D, Mancilla S, Martínez A, Cáceres R, Marfà O (2005). Oxifertigation and foliar nutrient contents of closed soilless rose crop. Acta Horticulturae 697:493-497. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.697.63

Chun C, Takakura T (1994). Rate of root respiration of lettuce under various dissolved oxygen concentrations in hydroponics. Environment Control in Biology 32(2):125-135. https://doi.org/10.2525/ecb1963.32.125

Cooper AJ (1975). Crop production in recirculating nutrient solution. Scientia Horticulturae 3:251-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(75)90008-4

Ehret D, Edwards D, Helmer T, Lin W, Jones G, Dorais M, Papadopoulos A (2010). Effects of oxygen-enriched nutrient solution on greenhouse cucumber and pepper production. Scientia Horticulturae 125:602-607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.05.009

Engelaar WMHG, Bruggen MWV, Hoek WPM, Huyser MAH, Blom CWPM (1993). Root porosities and radial oxygen losses of Rumex and Plantago species as influenced by soil pore diameter and soil aeration. New Phytologist 125:565-574. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1993.tb03904.x

Epstein E, Bloom AJ (2005). Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and perspectives, 2d ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.

Hansen GK (1977). Adaption to photosynthesis and diurnal oscillation of root respiration rates for Lolium multiflorum. Physiological Plantarum 39:275-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1977.tb01883.x

Holtman W, van Duijn B, Blaakmeer A, Blok C (2005). Optimization of oxygen levels in root systems as effective cultivation tool. Acta Horticulturae 697:57-64. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.697.5

Huber S (2000). New uses for drip irrigation: partial root zone drying and forced aeration. MSc Thesis, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich.

Gislerod HR, Kempton RJ (1983). The oxygen content of flowing nutrient solutions used for cucumber and tomato culture. Scientia Horticulturae 20:23-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(83)90108-5

Gislerod HR, Adams P (1983). Diurnal variations in the oxygen content and acid requirement of recirculating nutrient solutions and in the uptake of water and potassium by cucumber and tomato plants. Scientia Horticulturae 21:311-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(83)90121-8

Gorbe E, Calatayud A (2010). Optimization of nutrition in soilless systems: A review. Advances in Botanical Research 53:193-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(83)90121-8

Jackson MB (1980). Aeration in the nutrient film technique of glasshouse crop production and the importance of oxygen, ethylene and carbon dioxide. Acta Horticulturae 98:61-78. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1980.98.5

López-Pozos R, Martínez-Gutiérrez GA, Pérez-Pacheco R, Urrestarazu M (2011). The effects of slope and channel nutrient solution gap number on the yield of tomato crops by a nutrient film technique system under a warm climate. HortScience 46(5):727-729. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.46.5.727

Marfà O, Cáceres R, Guri S (2005). Oxyfertigation: a new technique for soilless culture under Mediterranean conditions. Acta Horticulturae 697:65-72. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.697.6

McLaren RG, Cameron KC (1996). Soil aeration and temperature. In: RG McLaren, KC Cameron (Eds). Soil science: Sustainable production and environmental protection. Oxford University Press, Auckland pp 105-115.

Morard P, Silvestre J (1996). Plant injury due to oxygen deficiency in the root environment of soilless culture: A review. Plant and Soil 184(2):243-254. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00010453

Morard P, Lacoste L, Silvestre J (2000). Effect of oxygen deficiency on uptake of water and mineral nutrients by tomato plants in soilless culture. Journal of Plant Nutrition 23:1063-1078. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160009382082

Puerta AR, Sato S, Shinohara Y, Maruo T (2007). A modified nutrient film technique system offers a more uniform nutrient supply to plants. HortTechnology 17(2):227-233. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.17.2.227

Savvas D, Gruda N (1998). Application of soilless culture technologies in the modern greenhouse industry – A review. European Journal of Horticultural Science 83(5):280-293. https://doi.org/10.17660/eJHS.2018/83.5.2

Schwarz D, Kuchenbuch R (1998). Water uptake by tomato plants grown in closed hydroponic system dependent on the EC-level. Acta Horticulturae 458:323-328. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.458.41

Thomas AL, Guerreiro SM, Sodek L (2005). Aerenchyma formation and recovery from hypoxia of the flooded root system of nodulated soybean. Annals of Botany 96:1191-1198. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci272

Urrestarazu M, Mazuela P (2005). Effect of slow-release oxygen supply by fertigation on horticultural crops under soilless culture. Scientia Horticulturae 106:484-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2005.05.010

Veen BW (1988). Influence of oxygen deficiency on growth and function of plant roots. Plant and Soil 111:259-266. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02139950

Vlugt JLF van der (1986). Root death in cucumber under different competitive conditions of the roots. Acta Horticulturae 178:21-127. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.178.15

Wheatley M, Tattersall E, Tillett R, Cramer G (2009). An expanded clay pebble, continuous recirculating drip system for viable long-term hydroponic grapevine culture. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 60(4):542-549.

Yoshida S, Kitano M, Eguchi H (1996). Water uptake and growth of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) under control of dissolved O2 concentration in hydroponics. Acta Horticulturae 440:199-204. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1996.440.35

Zeroni M, Gale J, Ben-Asher J (1983). Root aeration in a deep hydroponic system and its effect on growth and yield of tomato. Scientia Horticulturae 19:213-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(83)90066-3

Published
2020-08-29
How to Cite
LYCOSKOUFIS, I., & MAVROGIANOPOULOS, G. (2020). NDT, a new soilless growing system without substrate suitable for Mediterranean conditions. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(3). https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha48311877
Section
Research Articles