Foliar application of chitosan and nano-magnesium fertilizers influence on seed yield, oil content, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under water-limited conditions
Applying elicitors and nano-fertilizer has been recommended to enhance the growth and yield of secondary metabolites in herbs and medicinal plants under water-limited stress. However, less information is available on the effects of chitosan and nano-magnesium fertilizers on sesame seed yield, oil content, and physiological traits in the presence of nano-magnesium chelate (nano-Mg) under water-limited supply. In this regard, field experiments as a split-factorial experiment was performed based on randomized blocks in three replicates in Varamin city, south of Tehran, Iran, during 2015-2016 to evaluate the impact of chitosan and nano-Mg on physiological, seed, and oil traits of sesame. Irrigation cut-off based on BBCH scale was considered as the main factor including normal irrigation (I1), irrigation cut-off in 75 (I2), and 65 BBCH (I3) stages. Secondary factors as the subplot included ‘Oltan’ (C1) and ‘Dashtestan-2’ (C2) sesame cultivars, and foliar application of nano-Mg (application and non-application) and chitosan (control (CH1), foliar application of 4.8 g L-1 in 65 BBCH (CH2), and 6.4 g L-1 in 75 BBCH stages (CH3)). Further, free proline content, total sugars, the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT, EC 22.214.171.124), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 126.96.36.199), photosynthetic pigments content, seed yield, and oil content were evaluated in the next stage. Based on the results, irrigation cut-off in 65 BBCH stage (flowering) significantly increased free proline content, total sugars, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, CAT, POD, and APX. However, chlorophyll a, b, and total contents, seed yield, oil percentage, and yield decreased under water stress. ‘Dashtestan-2’ cultivar had the highest seed yield and oil content, and more tolerant cultivar under water-limited stress. Interestingly, the production of proline content and total sugars increased while the activity of antioxidant enzymes, CAT, POD, and APX decreased under application of nano-Mg and CH2, which influenced both sesame response and seed attributes. As a result, the production of some physiological traits in sesame cultivars may be regulated by adjusting the irrigating practices. Finally, the co-application of nano-Mg and CH2 increased the seed yield and oil content of sesame under limited water supply in the arid and semi-arid region.
Anaya F, Fghire R, Wahbi S, Loutfi K (2018). Influence of salicylic acid on seed germination of Vicia faba L. under salt stress. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Science 17(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2015.10.002
Asda K (1992). Ascorbate peroxidase-a hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme in plants. Physiologia Plantarum 85(2):235-241. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1992.tb04728.x
Bates LS, Waldern RP, Teave ID (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water
stress studies. Plant and Soil 39(1):205-207.
Blasco B, Graham NS, Broadley MR (2015). Antioxidant response and carboxylate metabolism in Brassica rapa exposed to different external Zn, Ca, and Mg supply. Journal of Plant Physiology 176:16-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2014.07.029
Ceppi M, Oukarroum G, Cicek A, Strasser N, Schansker G (2012). The IP amplitude of the fluorescence rise OJIP is sensitive to changes in the photosystem I content of leaves: a study on plants exposed to magnesium and sulfate deficiencies, drought stress and salt stress. Physiologia Plantarum 144(3):277-288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01549.x
Chance B, Maehly AC (1955). Assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology 2:764-775.
Chou TS, Chao YY, Huang WD, Hong CY, Kao CH (2010). Effect of magnesium deficiency on antioxidant status and cadmium toxicity in rice seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 168(10):1021-1030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2010.12.004
Farouk S, ad Amany AR (2012). Improving growth and yield of cowpea by foliar application of chitosan under water stress. Egyptian Journal of Biology 14(1):14-26. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejb.v14i1.2
Kaluzewicz A, Krzesinski W, Spizewski T, Zaworska A (2017). Effect of biostimulants on several physiological characteristics and chlorophyll content in broccoli under drought stress and re-watering. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 45(1):197-202. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha45110529
Lichtenthaler HK (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids. Pigments of photosynthetic membranes. Methods in Enzymology 148:350-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1
Mafakheri A, Siosemardeh AF, Bahramnejad B, Struik PC, Sohrabi Y (2010). Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science 8:580.
Morris DL (1948). Quantitative determination of carbohydrates with dreywood’s anthrone reagent. Science 107:254-255. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.107.2775.254
Morteza E, Moaveni P, Farahani HA, Kiyani M (2013). Study of photosynthetic pigments changes of maize (Zea mays L.) under nano TiO2 spraying at various growth stages. Springer Plus 2(1):247. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-247
Nikolova M, Popp T (2013). The effect of different potash and magnesium fertilizers and timing of application on yield and oil content of oilseed rape. International Potash Institute E-IFC 34:1-29.
Omidi H, Shams H, Sahandi MS, Rajabian T, Miransari M (2018). Balangu (Lallemantia sp.) growth and physiology under field drought conditions affecting plant medicinal content. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 130:641-646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.08.014
Pongprayoon W, Roytrakul S, Pichayangkura R, Chadchawan S (2013.) The role of hydrogen peroxide in chitosan-induced resistance to osmotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regulation 70(2):159-173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-013-9789-4
Roul B, Mishra BK, Prusty N (2017) Natural effect of micronutrient on growth and growth parameter of sesame oilseed crop. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6:1926-1928.
Senbayram M, Gransee A, Wahle V, Thiel H (2015). Role of magnesium fertilizers in agriculture. Plant-soil continuum. Crop and Pasture Science 66(12):1219-1229. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP15104
Sheikha SAAK, Al-Malki FM (2011). Growth and chlorophyll responses of bean plants to the chitosan application. European Journal of Scientific Research 50(1):124-134.
Solgi M (2018). The application of new environmentally friendly compounds on postharvest characteristics of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Brazilian Journal of Botany 41(3):515-522.
Sultana S, Islam M, Khatun MA, Hassain MA, Huque R (2017). Effect of foliar application of oligo-chitosan on growth, yield and quality of tomato and eggplant. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 11(2):36-42. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajar.2017.36.42
Taieb Baiazidi Aghdam M, Mohammadi H, Ghorbanpour M (2016). Effects of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide on physiological and biochemical performance of Linum usitatissimum (Linaceae) under well-watered and drought stress conditions. Brazilian Journal of Botany 39(1):139-146. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs40415-015-0227-x
Varela MC, Arslan I, Reginato MA, Cenzano AM, Luna MV (2016). Phenolic compounds as indicators of drought resistance in shrubs from Patagonian shrublands (Argentina). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 104:81-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.03.014
Wendel A (1981). Glutathione peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology 77:325-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(81)77046-0
Xiao S, Jihui C, Andrea R, Xue X, Yingjun Z, Tongtong P (2018). Effects of magnesium fertilizer on forage crude protein content depend upon available soil nitrogen. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66(8):1743-1750. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04028
Yanni Y, Zidan M, Dazzo F, Rizk R, Mehesen A, Abdelfattah F, Elsadany A (2016). Enhanced symbiotic performance and productivity of drought-stressed common bean after inoculation with tolerant native rhizobia in extensive fields. Agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 232:119-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.07.006
Yin H, Ba XF, Du YG (2008). The primary study of oligo chitosan inducing resistance to Sclerotinia scleraotiorum on B. napus. Journal of Biotechnology 136(4):600-601.
Zeng D, Luo X, Tu R (2012). Application of bioactive coatings based on chitosan for soybean seed protection. Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry 12:1-5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/104565
Copyright (c) 2020 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.