CO2 enrichment and increasing light intensity till a threshold level, enhance growth and water use efficiency of lettuce plants in controlled environment
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and light intensity are the two main environmental drivers known to play important roles in crop growth and yield. In the current study, lettuce seedlings were exposed to four different light intensities [(75, 150, 300 and 600 Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD)] and four different concentrations of CO2 (400, 800, 1200 and 1600 ppm). By increasing light intensity and CO2 concentration growth parameters such as fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area were stepwise increased from 75 to 300 PPFD and from 400 ppm to 1200 ppm CO2 concentration. Maximum fresh weight was observed in 300 PPFD under both 1200 ppm and 1600 ppm CO2 concentrations. Highest dry weight was obtained in plants exposed to 300 and 600 PPFD under both 1200 and 1600 ppm CO2 concentrations. Highest leaf area was detected in 300 PPFD under both 1200 and 1600 ppm CO2 concentrations. Widest stomatal pore aperture was detected in 600 PPFD under 400 ppm and 800 ppm CO2 concentrations. Evapotranspiration increased in a light intensity and CO2 concentration-dependent manner; higher light intensity or higher CO2 concentration, more evapotranspiration. Highest water use efficiency (WUE) was achieved in plants exposed to 300 PPFD under 1200 ppm CO2 concentration. In conclusion, to achieve best growth performance and WUE, lettuce should be produced under 300 PPFD light intensity and 1200 ppm CO2.
Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Leakey ADB, Heady LE, Gibon Y, Stitt M, Schurr U (2007). Does elevated atmospheric [CO2] alter diurnal C uptake and the balance of C and N metabolites in growing and fully expanded soybean leaves? Experimental Botany 58(3):579-591. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erl233
Aliniaeifard S, Hajilou J, Tabatabaei SJ (2016). Photosynthetic and growth responses of olive to proline and salicylic acid under salinity condition. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 44(2):579-585. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha44210413
Aliniaeifard S, Seif, M, Arab M, Zare Mehrjerdi M, Li T, Lastochkina O (2018). Growth and photosynthetic performance of Calendula officinalis under monochromatic red light. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 5(1):123-132. https://doi.org/10.22059/IJHST.2018.261042.248
Aliniaeifard S, van Meeteren U (2016). Stomatal characteristics and desiccation response of leaves of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) flowers grown at high air humidity. Scientia Horticulture 205:84-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2016.04.025
Aliniaeifard S, van Meeteren U (2018 b). Greenhouse vapor pressure deficit and lighting conditions during growth can influence postharvest quality through the functioning of stomata. Acta Horticulture 1227:677-684. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1227.86
Aliniaeifard S, Van Meeteren U (2018a). Natural genetic variation in stomatal response can help to increase acclimation of plants to dried environments. Acta Horticulture 1190:71-76. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1190.12
Al-Khatib K, Paulsen GM (1989). Enhancement of thermal injury to photosynthesis in wheat plants and thylakoids by high light intensity. Plant Physiology 90(3):1041-1048. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.90.3.1041
Asayesh ZM, Vahdati K, Aliniaefard S (2017). Enhancement of ex vitro acclimation of walnut plantlets through modification of stomatal characteristics in vitro. Scientia Horticulture 220:114-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.03.045
Aytek A (2008). Co-active neurofuzzy inference system for evapotranspiration modeling. Soft Computer 13(7):691. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-008-0342-8
Bayat L, Arab M, Aliniaeifard S, Seif M, Lastochkina O, Li T (2018). Effects of growth under different light spectra on the subsequent high light tolerance in rose plants. AoB Plants 10(5):52. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/ply052
Bowes G, Ogren W, Hageman, R (1972). Light saturation, photosynthesis rate, RuDP carboxylase activity, and specific leaf weight in soybeans grown under different light intensities. Crop Science 12(1):77-79. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1972.0011183X001200010025x
Brentrup F, Küsters J, Kuhlmann H, Lammel J (2001). Application of the life cycle assessment methodology to agricultural production: an example of sugar beet production with different forms of nitrogen fertilizers. Agronomy 14(3):221-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(00)00098-8
Caporn SJM (1989). The effects of oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide enrichment on photosynthesis and growth of lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.). New Phytologist 111(3):473-481. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1989.tb00710.x
Cetritto M, Loreto F, Massacci A, Pietrini F, Villani M, Zacchini M (2000). Improved growth and water use efficiency of cherry saplings under reduced light intensity. Ecological Research 15(4):385-392. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1703.2000.00359.x
Clough J, Peet M, Kramer P (1981). Effects of high atmospheric CO2 and sink size on rates of photosynthesis of a soybean cultivar. Plant Physiology 67(5):1007-1010.
Damatta FM, Grandis A, Arenque BC, Buckeridge MS (2010). Impacts of climate changes on crop physiology and food quality. Food Research International 43(7):1814-1823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.11.001
Fan X-X, Xu Z-G, Liu X-Y, Tang C-M, Wang L-W, Han X (2013). Effect of light intensity on the growth and leaf development of young tomato plants grown under a combination of red and blue light. Science Horticulturae 153:50-55.
Fanourakis D, Giday H, Hyldgaard B, Bouranis D, Körner O, Ottosen C-O (2019 B). Low air humidity during growth promotes stomatal closure ability in roses. European Journal of Horticultural Science 84(4):245-252. https://doi.org/10.17660/eJHS.2019/84.4.7
Fanourakis D, Hyldgaard B, Giday H, Aulik I, Bouranis D, Körner O, Ottosen C-O (2019 A). Stomatal anatomy and closing ability is affected by supplementary light intensity in rose (Rosa hybrida L.). Horticultural Science 46(2):81-89. https://doi.org/10.17221/144/2017-HORTSCI
Fanourakis D, Maaswinkel RHM, Carvalho SMP, Heuvelink E (2011). Genotypic variation of cut chrysanthemum response to high CO2 concentration: Growth, time to flowering and visual quality. Acta Horticulture 893:839-848. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.893.92
Farquhar GD, Von Caemmerer S, Berry JA (1980). A biochemical model of photosynthetic COs assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149(1):78-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00386231
Franks P, Beerling D (2009). Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(25):10343-10347. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0904209106
Fu W, Li P, Wu Y (2012). Effects of different light intensities on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and yield in lettuce. Scientia Horticulturae 135:45-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.12.004
Giday H, Fanourakis D, Kjaer KH, Fomsgaard IS, Ottosen CO (2014) Threshold response of stomatal closing ability to leaf abscisic acid concentration during growth. Journal of Experimental Botany 65(15):4361-4370. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru216
Givi J, Prasher S, Patel R (2004). Evaluation of pedotransfer functions in predicting the soil water contents at field capacity and wilting point. Agriculture Water Management 70(2):83-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.06.009
Givnish TJ, Montgomery RA, Goldstein G (2004). Adaptive radiation of photosynthetic physiology in the Hawaiian Lobeliads: light regimes, static light responses, and whole‐plant compensation points. Botany 91(2):228-246. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.91.2.228
Gorton HL, Willimas WE, Assmann SM (1993). Circadian rhythms in stomatal responsiveness to red and blue light. Plant Physiology 103(2):399-406. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.2.399
Heath OV, Russell J (1954). Studies in stomatal behavior: VI. An investigation of the light responses of wheat stomata with the attempted elimination of control by the mesophyll. Part 2. Interactions with external carbon dioxide and general discussion. Journal of Experimental Botany 5(2):269-292. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/5.2.269
Ho LC (1977). Effects of CO2 enrichment on the rates of photosynthesis and translocation of tomato leaves. Annals of Applied Biology 87(2):191-200. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1977.tb01875.x
Hoittenschwiler S, Korner C (1996). Effects of elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition on photosynthesis and growth of understory plants in spruce model ecosystems. Oecologia 106(2):172-180. https://doi.org/10.1007%2FBF00328596
Idsi SB, Limball BA, Mauney JR (1988). Effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on root: Shoot ratios of carrot, radish, cotton and soybean. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 21(3-4):293-299.
Ito T (1978). Physiological aspects of carbon dioxide enrichment to cucumber plants grown in greenhouses. In: Symposium on Potential Productivity in Protected Cultivation 87:139-146.
Jitla DS, Rogers GS, Seneweera SP, Basra AS, Oldfield RJ, Conroy JP (1997). Accelerated early growth of rice at elevated CO2. Is it related to developmental change in the shoot apex? Plant Physiology 115(1):15-22. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.115.1.15
Karam F, Lahoud R, Masaad R, Kabalan R, Breidi J, Chalita C, Rouphael Y (2007). Evapotranspiration, seed yield and water use efficiency of drip irrigated sunflower under full and deficit irrigation conditions. Agricultural Water Management 90(3):213-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2007.03.009
Kozai T, Niu G, Takagaki M (2015). Plant factory: an indoor vertical farming system for efficient quality food production. Academic Press.
Lanoue J, Leonardos ED, Ma X, Grodzinski B (2017). The effect of spectral quality on daily patterns of gas exchange, biomass gain, and water-use-efficiency in tomatoes and lisianthus: an assessment of whole plant measurements. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:1076. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01076
Lawson T, Von Caemmerer S, Baroli I (2010). Photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour. Progress in Botany 72:265-304. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-13145-5_11
Lee SH, Tewari RK, Hahn E-J, Paek KY, Tissue PC, Culture O (2007). Photon flux density and light quality induce changes in growth, stomatal development, photosynthesis and transpiration of (Withania somnifera L.) Dunal. plantlets. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 90(2):141-151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-006-9191-2
Lemon ER (1983). The response of plants to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Westview Press, USA.
Li J, Li Y, Yin Z, Jiang J, Zhang M, Guo X, … Li Z (2017). OsASR5 enhances drought tolerance through a stomatal closure pathway associated with ABA and H2O2 signaling in rice. Plant Biotechnology 15(2):183-196. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12601
Li-Quan J, Yan-Zhen W, Shi-Teng Z, Yun-Xia W, Yu-Long W, Lian-Xin Y (2016). Effects of CO2 enrichment and spikelet removal on rice quality under open-air field conditions. Integrative Agriculture 15(9):2012-2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(15)61245-X
Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Leakey AD, Nösberger J, Ort DR (2006). Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations. Science 312(5782):1918-1921. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.111472
Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Ort DR (2004). Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: plants FACE the future. Annual Reviews in Plant Biology 55:591-628. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141610
Ma L, He C, Wang Zh (2013). The research for the greenhouse water evaporation based on environmental factors. Advance Journal of Food and Technology 5:1049-1054. https://doi.org/10.19026/AJFST.5.3203
Matos FS, Wolfgramm R, Gonçalves FV, Cavatte PC, Ventrella MC, DaMatta FM (2009). Phenotypic plasticity in response to light in the coffee tree. Environmental and Experimental Botany 67(2):421-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.06.018
Morais H, Medri ME, Marur CJ, Caramori PH, Ribeiro AM, Gomes JC (2004). Modifications on leaf anatomy of Coffea arabica caused by shade of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 47(6):863-871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132004000600005
Morison JIL (1985). Sensitivity of stomata and water use efficiency to high CO2. Plant, Cell and Environment 8(6):467-474. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1985.tb01682.x
Pan T, Wang Y, Wang L, Ding J, Cao Y, Qin G, … Zou Z (2020). Increased CO2 and light intensity regulate growth and leaf gas exchange in tomato. Physiologia Plantarum 9:756. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00756.
Pazzagli PT, Weiner J, Liu F (2016). Effects of CO2 elevation and irrigation regimes on leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and water use efficiency of two tomato cultivars. Agricultural Water Management 169:26-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.02.015
Pennisi G, Orsini F, Blasioli S, Cellini A, Crepaldi A, Braschi I, … Stanghellini C (2019). Resource use efficiency of indoor lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivation as affected by red: blue ratio provided by LED lighting. Scientific Reports 9(1):1-11.
Poudel M, Dunn B (2017). Greenhouse carbon dioxide supplementation. Oklahoma State University, pp 6723.
Prioul JL, Brangeon J, Reyss A (1980). Interaction between external and internal conditions in the development of photosynthetic features in a grass leaf: I. Regional responses along a leaf during and after low-light or high-light acclimation. Plant Physiology 66(4):762-769. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.66.4.762
Quail PH (2002). Phytochrome photosensory signalling networks. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 3(2):85-93. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm728
Robredo A, Pérez-López U, Maza HS, González-Moro B, Lacuesta M, Mena-Petite A (2007). Elevated CO2 alleviates the impact of drought on barley improving water status by lowering stomatal conductance and delaying its effects on photosynthesis. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59(3):252-263.
Rogers A, Allen DJ, Davey PA, Morgan PB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, … Long SP (2004). Leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate dynamics of soybeans grown throughout their life-cycle under free-air carbon dioxide enrichment. Plant, Cell & Environment 27(4):449-458. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01163.x
Sack FD (2004). Yoda would be proud: Valves for land plants. Plant Science 304(5676):1461-1462. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1099445
Sage RF, Sharkey TD, Seemann JR (1989) Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 in five C3 species. Plant Physiology 89(2):590-596. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.89.2.590
Savvides A, Fanourakis D, van Ieperen W (2012). Co-ordination of hydraulic and stomatal conductances across light qualities in cucumber leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany 63(3):1135-1143. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err348
Sørensen HK, Fanourakis D, Tsaniklidis G, Bouranis D, Rezaei Nejad A, Ottosen C-O (2020) Using artificial lighting based on electricity price without a negative impact on growth, visual quality or stomatal closing response in Passiflora. Scientia Horticulturae 267:109354.
Steinger T, Roy B, Stanton M (2003). Evolution in stressful environments II: adaptive value and costs of plasticity in response to low light in Sinapis arvensis. Evolution Biological 16(2):313-323. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00518.x
Tabari H, Kisi O, Ezani A, Hosseinzadeh Talaee P (2012). SVM, ANFIS, regression and climate-based models for reference evapotranspiration modeling using limited climate data in a semi-arid highland environment. Journal of Hydrology 444:78-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.04.007
Tausz M, Posch ST, Norton RM, Fitzgerald GJ, Nicolas ME. Seneweera S (2013). Understanding crop physiology to select breeding targets and improve crop management under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Environmental and Experimental Botany 88:71-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2011.12.005
Thomas PW, Woodward FI, Quick WP (2004). Systemic irradiance signaling in tobacco. New Phytologist 161(1):193-198. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00954.x
Vahdati K, Asayesh ZM, Aliniaeifard S, Leslie C (2017). Improvement of ex vitro desiccation through elevation of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere of culture vessels during in vitro growth. HortScience 52(7):1006-1012. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI11922-17
Van Meeteren U, Aliniaeifard S (2016). Stomata and postharvest physiology. In: Postharvest ripening physiology of crops. Taylor and Francis.
Van Straten G, Willigenburg G, Van Henten EJ, Ooteghem V (2010). Optimal control of greenhouse cultivation. CRC Press.
Woodward SJR, Barker DJ, Zyskowski RF (2001). A practical model for predicting soil water deficit in New Zealand pastures. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture Research 44(1):91-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.2001.9513464
Wu D-X, Wang G-X, Bai Y-F, Liao J-X (2004). Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, water use yield and grain quality of wheat under two soil water levels. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104(3):493-507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2004.01.018
Yu W, Liu Y, Song L, Jacobs D F, Du X, Ying Y, Shao Q, Wu J (2016). Effect of differential light quality on morphology, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Camptotheca acuminata seedlings. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 36(1):148-160. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00857
Zhang S, Ma K, Chen L (2003). Response of photosynthetic plasticity of Paeonia suffruticosa to changed light environments. Environmental Experience Botany 49(2):121-133.
Zhao X, Chen T, Feng B, Zhang C, Peng S, Zhang X, … Tao L (2017). Non-photochemical quenching plays a key role in light acclimation of rice plants differing in leaf color. Frontiers in Plant Science 7:1968. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01968
Zou J, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Bian Z, Fanourakis D, Yang Q, Li T (2019) Morphological and physiological properties of indoor cultivated lettuce in response to additional far-red light. Scientia Horticulturae 257:108725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2019.108725
Copyright (c) 2020 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.