A comparative study on the effects of ultrasound and some growth factors on somatic embryogenesis and artificial seed production in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a popular vegetable crop of the family Cucurbitaceae, is cultivated in different parts of the world and is of great economic importance. Ultrasound is known as a physical stimulus that can affect living systems. At the right frequency and exposure period, these waves have desired effects. In the present study, 2-week-old plants, were put in an ultrasonic bath with a nominal frequency of 40 kHz, a central frequency of 34/722 kHz and a bandwidth of 320 Hz for 0, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Hypocotyl pieces were used as explants and cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0/5 mg/l each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-Naphthalene acetic acid, kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine. The use of ultrasonication at a nominal frequency of 40 kHz for 10 minutes showed better results as compared with the samples treated for 0, 5 and 15 minutes, in terms of the shape, maturity of the embryos, and also the germination of artificial seeds and maturing to flowering stage. Since the cucumber of Esfahan is very famous for its aroma and taste and it is somewhat at risk of extinction, we studied the production of artificial seeds of this valuable plant using somatic embryos and apical buds. This research is the first report on investigation of the positive effect of ultrasound on somatic embryogenesis and artificial seed production. our results clearly showed that this method is a practical method to accelerate seed germination and flowering stage.
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