Effects of Mycorrhiza Inoculation and Grafting for Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Crop Under Low-Tech Greenhouse Conditions
In low-cost, unheated greenhouses and tunnels the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and/or grafting can be a less expensive and sustainable solution to combat the adverse effects of monoculture, instead of costly soilless culture. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a commercially available AMF inoculant and grafting on sweet pepper, under circumstances of modelling commercial low-tech greenhouse production. ‘SV9702PP F1’ sweet pepper hybrid was cultivated for seven months in an unheated greenhouse. Beside the control, three treatments were applied: ungrafted AMF treated plants, plants grafted on ‘Bagi F1’ hybrid and AMF treated plus grafted plants. AMF was applied into the planting holes just before transplanting. AMF treatment had positive effects on relative chlorophyll content of leaves (expressed in SPAD value), on plant stand, on plant mass production, on yield and on root colonization rate, despite the high presence of indigenous populations of AMF in the greenhouse soil. With the applied rootstock/scion combination, grafting did not significantly affect the aforementioned parameters. SPAD values were increased by the AMF treatment during periods when smaller doses of nitrogen (less than 0.8 g N per m-2 week-1) were applied. Significant positive correlation was found between root colonization rate and marketable yield. AMF treatment increased the yield by 18% (from 12.43 to 14.74 kg m-2), mostly due to higher number of fruits. Yield increase was mainly realised during the last third of the harvest period, when the applied nutrient doses were low and temperature conditions were suboptimal.
Abdel Latef AAH, Chaoxing H (2014). Does inoculation with Glomus mosseae improve salt tolerance in pepper plants? Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 33(3):644-653.
Aidoo MK, Sherman T, Ephrath JE, Fait A, Rachmilevitch S, Lazarovitch N (2018). Grafting as a method to increase the tolerance response of bell pepper to extreme temperatures. Vadose Zone Journal 17(1):170006.
Aissa E, Mougou A, Khalfallah KK (2016). Influence of mycorrhizal inoculation and source of phosphorus on growth and nutrient uptake of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in calcareous soil. Journal of New Science 28(5):1589-1595.
Al-Karaki GN (2017). Effects of mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on green pepper yield and mineral uptake under irrigation with saline water. Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research 6(5):00231.
Bakr J, Daood HG, Pék Z, Helyes L, Posta K (2017). Yield and quality of mycorrhized processing tomato under water scarcity. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 15(1):401-413.
Bakr J, Pék Z, Helyes L, Posta K. (2018). Mycorrhizal inoculation alleviates water deficit impact on field-grown processing tomato. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 27(5):1949-1958.
Balliu A, Sallaku G, Rewald B (2015). AMF inoculation enhances growth and improves the nutrient uptake rates of transplanted, salt-stressed tomato seedlings. Sustainability 7(12):15967-15981.
Beltrano J, Ruscitti M, Arango MC, Ronco M (2013). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on plant growth, biological and physiological parameters and mineral nutrition in pepper grown under different salinity and p levels. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 13(1):123-141.
Boonlue S, Surapat W, Pukahuta C, Suwanarit P, Suwanarit A, Morinaga T (2012). Diversity and efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils from organic chili (Capsicum frutescens) farms. Mycoscience 53(1):10-16.
Camposeco-Montejo N, Robledo-Torres V, Ramírez-Godina F, Mendoza-Villarreal R, Pérez-Rodríguez MÁ, Cabrera-de la Fuente M (2018). Response of bell pepper to rootstock and greenhouse cultivation in coconut fiber or soil. Agronomy 8(7):111.
Cekic FÖ, Ünyayar S, Ortas I (2012). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on biochemical parameters in Capsicum annuum grown under long term salt stress. Turkish Journal of Botany 36(1):63-72.
Chen K, Liu W, Guo S, Liu R, Li M (2012). Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in continuous cropping soils used for pepper production. African Journal of Microbiology Research 6(10):2469-2474.
Colla G, Rouphae Y, Cardarelli M, Temperini O, Rea E, Salerno A, Pierandrei F (2008). Influence of grafting on yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Acta Horticulturae 782:359-364.
Duc NH, Mayer Z, Pék Z, Helyes L, Posta K (2017). Combined inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma spp. for enhancing defense enzymes and yield of three pepper cultivars. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 15(3):1815-1829.
Ergun V, Aktas H (2018). Effect of grafting on yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under open field conditions. Scientific-Papers Series B-Horticulture 62:463-466.
Estrada-Luna AA, Davies Jr FT (2003). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence water relations, gas exchange, abscisic acid and growth of micro propagated Chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum) plantlets during acclimatization and post-acclimatization. Journal of Plant Physiology 160(9):1073-1083.
FAOSTAT (2017). Crops. Retrieved 2019 June 27 from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.
FruitVeB (2018). A zöldség és gyümölcs ágazat helyzete Magyarországon - 2017. [Annual report of Hungarian fruit and vegetable sector - 2017] FruitVeB Hungarian Interprofessional Organisation for Fruit and Vegetables. Budapest.
Giovannetti M, Mosse B (1980). An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist 84:489-500.
Goicoechea N, Garmendia I, Sánchez-Díaz M, Aguirreolea J (2010) Review. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bioprotector agents against wilt induced by Verticillium spp. in pepper. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 8(S1):S25-S42.
Haghighi M, Barzegar MR (2017). Effect of amino acid and mycorrhiza inoculation on sweet pepper growth under greenhouse conditions. Iran Agricultural Research 36(2):47-54.
Hernádi I, Sasvári Z, Albrechtová J, Vosátka M, Posta K (2012). Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculant increases yield of spice pepper and affects the indigenous fungal community in the field. HortScience 47(5):603-606.
Jang Y, Yang E, Cho M, Um Y, Ko K, Chun C (2012). Effect of grafting on growth and incidence of phytophthora blight and bacterial wilt of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology 53(1):9-19.
Jezdinský A, Vojtíšková J, Slezák K, Petříková K, Pokluda R (2012). Effect of drought stress and Glomus inoculation on selected physiological processes of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv ‘Slavy’). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 60(3):69-76.
Kaya C, Ashraf M, Sonmez O, Aydemir S, Tuna AL, Cullu MA (2009). The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation on key growth parameters and fruit yield of pepper plants grown at high salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 121(1):1-6.
Lee JM, Kubota C, Tsao SJ, Bie Z, Hoyos Echevarria P, Morra L, Oda M (2010). Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127(2):93-105.
Li JW, Yang JP, Fei PP, Song JL, Li DS, Ge CS, Chen WY (2009). Responses of rice leaf thickness, SPAD readings and chlorophyll a/b ratios to different nitrogen supply rates in paddy field. Field Crops Research 114(3):426-432.
López-Marín J, González A, Perez-Alfocea F, Egea-Gilabert C, Fernández JA (2013). Grafting is an efficient alternative to shading screens to alleviate thermal stress in greenhouse-grown sweet pepper. Scientia Horticulturae 149:39-46.
López-Marín J, Gálvez A, del Amor FM, Albacete A, Fernández JA, Egea-Gilabert C, Pérez-Alfocea F (2017). Selecting vegetative/generative/dwarfing rootstocks for improving fruit yield and quality in water stressed sweet peppers. Scientia Horticulturae 214:9-17.
Ma Y, Vosátka M, Freitas H (2019). Beneficial microbes alleviate climatic stresses in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:595.
Matsunaga H, Saito T, Saito A, Yoshida T, Sato T, Sakata Y, Monma S (2015). Development of Capsicum rootstock cultivars ‘L4 Dai-Power’ and ‘Daichikara’ with resistance to bacterial wilt and Phytophthora blight. (in Japanese). Bulletin of the National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science 14:39-56.
Mayer Z, Juhász A, Vo Trung A, Posta K (2019). Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on some defence enzyme activities at an early stage of maize (Zea mays L.) under different abiotic stresses. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17(3):6241-6253.
Miceli A, Romano C, Moncada A, Piazza G, Torta L, D’Anna F, Vetrano F (2016). Yield and quality of mini-watermelon as affected by grafting and mycorrhizal inoculum. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 18:505-516.
Morikawa CK (2017). Reducing cadmium accumulation in fresh pepper fruits by grafting. The Horticulture Journal 86(1):45-51.
Ortas I, Sarai N, Akpinar C (2003). Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and soil fumigation on the yield and nutrient uptake of some Solanaceae crops (tomato, eggplant and pepper) under field conditions. Agricoltura Mediterranea 133(3-4):249-258.
Ortas I (2012). The effect of mycorrhizal fungal inoculation on plant yield, nutrient uptake and inoculation effectiveness under long-term field conditions. Field Crops Research 125:35-48.
Oyetunji OJ, Salami AO (2011). Study on the control of Fusarium wilt in the stems of mycorrhizal and trichodermal inoculated pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Journal of Applied Biosciences 45:3071-3080.
Ozgonen H, Erkilic A (2007). Growth enhancement and Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora capsici Leonian) control by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation in pepper. Crop Protection 26(11):1682-1688.
Oztekin GB, Tuzel Y, Tuzel IH (2013). Does mycorrhiza improve salinity tolerance in grafted plants? Scientia Horticulturae 149:55-60.
Penella C, Nebauer SG, López-Galarza S, Quiñones A, San Bautista A, Calatayud A (2017). Grafting pepper onto tolerant rootstocks: An environmental-friendly technique overcome water and salt stress. Scientia Horticulturae 226:33-41.
Penella C, Calatayud A (2018). Pepper crop under cclimate hange: Grafting as an environmental friendly strategy. In: Shanker A (Ed). Climate Resilient Agriculture: Strategies and Perspectives. IntechOpen, London pp 129-155.
Pereira JAP, Vieira IJC, Freitas MSM, Prins CL, Martins MA, Rodrigues R (2016). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Capsicum spp. The Journal of Agricultural Science 154(5):828-849.
Regvar M, Vogel-Mikus K, Severka T (2003). Effect of AM fungi inoculum from field isolates on the yield of green pepper, parsley, carrot, and tomato. Folia Geobotanica 38(2):223-234.
Ropokis A, Ntatsi G, Kittas C, Katsoulas N, Savvas D (2019). Effects of temperature and grafting on yield, nutrient uptake, and water use efficiency of a hydroponic sweet pepper crop. Agronomy 9(2):110.
Russo VM, Perkins-Veazie P (2010). Yield and nutrient content of bell pepper pods from plants developed from seedlings inoculated, or not, with microorganisms. HortScience 45(3):352-358.
Sánchez-Solana F, Ros C, Guerrero M, Lacasa C, Sánchez-López E, Lacasa A (2016). New pepper accessions proved to be suitable as a genetic resource for use in breeding nematode-resistant rootstocks. Plant Genetic Resources 14(1):28-34.
Sharif M, Claasen N (2011). Action mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phosphorus uptake by Capsicum annuum L. Pedosphere 21(4):502-511.
Selvakumar G, Yi PH, Lee SE, Shagol CC, Han SG, Sa T, Chung BN (2018). Effects of long-term subcultured arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on red pepper plant growth and soil glomalin content. Mycobiology 46(2):122-128.
Sonneveld C, Voogt W (2009). Plant nutrition of greenhouse crops. Springer, Dordrecht.
Tanwar A, Aggarwal A, Kadian N, Gupta A (2013). Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and super phosphate application influence plant growth and yield of Capsicum annuum. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 13(1):55-66.
Vierheilig H, Coughlan AP, Wyss U, Piché Y (1998). Ink and vinegar, a simple staining technique for arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(12):5004-5007.
Vosátka M, Látr A, Gianinazzi S, Albrechtová J (2012). Development of arbuscular mycorrhizal biotechnology and industry: current achievements and bottlenecks. Symbiosis 58(1-3):29-37.
Yuan S, Li M, Fang Z, Liu Y, Shi W, Pan B, . . . Shen Q (2016). Biological control of tobacco bacterial wilt using Trichoderma harzianum amended bioorganic fertilizer and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae. Biological Control 92:164-171.
Zheng HZ, Cui CL, Zhang YT, Wang D, Jing Y, Kim KY (2005). Active changes of lignifications-related enzymes in pepper response to Glomus intraradices and/or Phytophthora capsici. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 6(8):778-786.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.