Effects of the interaction between shade and drought on physiological characteristics in Calamus viminalis seedlings
Recently, the endangerment of wild rattan population draws attention on the conservation and sustainable utilization of rattan resources. Rattan growing usually faces the light and water stress. Therefore, we aim to explore the combined effects of shade and drought on seedling growth, thus providing a theoretical ground for the conservation and artificial cultivation of the rattan. The combined effects of shade and drought on physiological and biochemical traits were studied in two-years-old Calamus viminalis seedlings. Photosynthetic indices including Pn, Gs, Tr, and Ci and physiological indices including MDA, SOD, POD, CAT, and Pro were measured under four levels of water treatments and four levels of shade. Shade, drought and their interaction have a significant effect on C. viminalis seedlings growth. Generally, moderate shade could alleviate the impact induced by drought. However, mild drought usually enhances the effect caused by shading. The result showed that the shade decreased Pn, Gs, and Tr but increased Ci, MDA content and Pro content. Either with the shading or drought increasing, the activity of SOD, POD, and CAT firstly increase and then declined. Drought reduced Pn, Gs, Tr, and Ci but increased the content of MDA and Pro. Overall, the result suggests that 25-50% shading and 65% RSWC water treatment are most beneficial for the growth of C. viminalis seedlings.
Amissah L, Mohren GMJ, Kyereh B, Poorter L (2015). The effects of drought and shade on the performance, morphology and physiology of Ghanaian tree species. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0121004.
Aranda I, Castro L, Pardos M, Gil L, Pardos JA (2005). Effects of the interaction between drought and shade on water relations, gas exchange and morphological traits in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 210(1-3):117-129.
Arora S, Saradhi PP (2002). Light induced enhancement in proline levels under stress is regulated by non-photosynthetic events. Biologia Plantarum 45(4):629-632.
Bøgh A (1996). Abundance and growth of rattans in Khao Chong National Park, Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management 84(1-3):71-80.
Chen SY (1989). Membrane-lipid peroxidation and plant stress. Chinese Bulletin of Botany 6(4):211-217.
Chen RG, Fan SH, Liu GL, Xu RJ, Hu X, Su HR (2017). Niche characteristics of dominant species of rattan accompanying community in secondary lowland rain forest in Hainan Island, China. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 37(6):1226-1233.
Climent JM, Aranda I, Alonso J, Pardos JA, Gil L (2006). Developmental constraints limit the response of Canary Island pine seedlings to combined shade and drought. Forest Ecology and Management 231(1-3):164-168.
Dai YJ, Shen ZG, Li Y (2009). Effects of shade treatments on the photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg. Environmental and Experimental Botany 65(2-3):177-182.
Deng YP, Lei JP, Pan L, Wang XR (2016). Model fitting of photosynthetic light-response curves in different Quercus variabilis provenances and its parameter comparison. Chinese Journal of Ecology 35(2):387-394．
Dong SF, Lu J, Peng YW (2015). Effect of shading and fertilization on seedling growth of Calamus gracilis. Journal of West China Forestry Science 44(5):90-95.
Dransfield J (1992). The ecology and natural history of rattans. In: A guide to the cultivation of rattan. Wan RWM, Dransfield J, Manokaran N. Forest Record No. 35. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Forest Research Insititute Malaysia pp 29.
Haffani S, Mezni M, Slama I, Ksontini M, Chaïbi W (2014). Plant growth, water relations and proline content of three vetch species under water-limited conditions. Grass and Forage Science 69(2):323-333.
Han B, Li ZY, Guo H, Zhang JP (2014). Studies on seedling photosynthetic characteristics of five tree species under drought Stress. Forest Research 27(1):92-98.
Holmgren M (2000). Combined effects of shade and drought on tulip poplar seedlings: trade-off in tolerance or facilitation? Oikos 90(1):67-78.
Hou ST, Zhang Q, Liu SC, Zeng LY, Wu Y, Liu GL (2014). Growth and physiological responses of Melaleuca bracteata cv. ‘Revolution Gold’ to water stress. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 34(12):2491-2499.
Ingram J, Bartels D (1996). The molecular basis of dehydration tolerance in plant. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 47(1):377-403.
Jia X, Sun CS, Li GY, Li GB, Chen GL (2015). Effects of progressive drought stress on the physiology, antioxidative enzymes and secondary metabolites of Radix Astragali. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 37(12):262.
Jia X, Sun CS, Li GY, Li GB, Chen GL (2018). Effect of drought stress on the growth and physiological characteristics and the accumulation of astragaloside IV secondary metabolites of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 38(3):501-509.
Jiang ZH, Fan SH, Zhang CS, Guan FY (2007). Advances in rattan research. Acta Agriculturae Univeritatis Jiangxiensis 29(6):957-964.
Jiang ZH, Wang KL (2013). Rattan in China. Science Press, Beijing.
Jing DW, Xing SJ, Du ZJ, (2013). Effects of drought stress on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and active oxygen metabolism of poplar seedlings. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 24(7):1809-1816.
Lawlor DW (1995). The effects of water deficit on photosynthesis. Environment and Plant Metabolism 129-160.
Li RS, Xu HC, Yang JC, Yin GT (2002). A review of relationship between rattan and water. Forestry studies in China 4(1):65-68.
Li RS (2003). Study on drought resistance and water use efficiency of three rattan species in southern China. PhD Thesis, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou.
Li YJ, Li J, Xu P, He HW (2014). Physiological responses of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. seedlings to drought stress. Arid Zone Research 31(4):756-762.
Liu JF, Yang WJ, Jiang ZP, Guo QS, Jin JQ, Xue L (2011). Effects of shading on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of the endangered plant Thuja sutchuenensis. Acta Ecologica Sinica 31(20):5999-6004.
Liu JL, Wang Y, Xu DM (2018). Study on physiological characteristics of five gramineous grass seedlings under drought stress. Pratacultural Science 35(5):1106-1115.
Liu HY, Liang ZS, Liu SM, Dong JE (2007). Effect of progressive drying and rewatering on protective enzyme activities and osmoregulatory molecules in leaves of Eucommia ulmoides seeding. Journal of Northwest Forestry University 22(3):55-59.
Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005). Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 444(2):139-158.
Manokaran N (1981a). Survival and growth of rotan sega (Calamus caesius) seedlings at 2 years after planting: I. Line-planted in poorly-drained soil. The Malaysian Forester 44(1):12-22.
Manokaran N (1981b). Survival and growth of rotan sega (Calamus caesius) seedlings at 2 years after planting: I. Line-planted in well-drained soil. The Malaysian Forester 44(4):464-472.
Manokaran N (1982a). Survival and growth of rotan sega (Calamus caesius) seedlings at 2 years after planting: I. Group-planted in poorly-drained soil. The Malaysian Forester 45(1):36-48.
Manokaran N (1982a). Survival and growth of rotan sega (Calamus caesius) seedlings at 5 1/3 years after planting. The Malaysian Forester 45(2):193-202.
Mori T (1980). Growth of Rotan manau (Calamus manan) seedlings under various light conditions. The Malaysian Forester 43(2):187-192.
Peng C (2017). Study on site adaptability of rattan to environment in lowland secondary rain forest in Ganzaling of Hainan Island, China. PhD Thesis, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing.
Qian PX, Li XF, Wu YY, Rao HY, Liu R, Li MQ, Fu T (2015). Influence of shading on growth and physiological characteristics of container seedlings of Acer cinnamomifolium. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences 31(3):667-672.
Ren YC, Liu J, Li M, Chen C, Sun XL (2017). Effects of shading stress on antioxidant system of two buffalograss varieties. Acta Agrestia Sinica 25(6):1345-1351.
Ren WW, Qian J, Ma J, Zheng SZ (2000). Comparative study of Leymus chinensis’s water content and free proline of different geographic populations under the force of different consistency PEG. Acta Ecologica Sinica 20(2):349-352.
Rousset O, Lepart J (2000). Positive and negative interactions at different life stages of a colonizing species (Quercus humilis). Journal of Ecology 88(3):401-412.
Sack L, Grubb PJ (2002). The combined impacts of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade tolerant woody seedlings. Oecologia 131(2):175-185.
Sang ZY, Ma LY, Chen FJ (2011). Growth and physiological characteristics of Magnolia wufengensis seedlings under drought stress. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 31(1):0109-0115.
Shao YJ, Shan L, Li GM (2006). Comparison of osmotic regulation and antioxidation between sorghum and maize seedlings under soil drought stress and water recovering conditions. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 14(1):68-70.
Sun S, Zhang XJ, Liu JP, You MH, Guo BH (2018). Synergistic effects of shade and drought on the physiological metabolism and resistance system of Arthraxon hispidus. Acta Ecologica Sinica 38(5):1770-1779.
Sun ZY, Ma YJ, Liu XE, Gao J (2013). Effects of low light environment on the growth and photosynthesis of Calamus nambariensis seedlings. Journal of Southwest Forestry University 33(1):16-20.
Tang GL, Li XY, Lin LS, Li L, Lu JR (2013). Change of different shading on moisture conditions and the physiological response in Alhagi sparsifolia. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology 37(4):354-364.
Wang C, Lin QP, Gong DH, Li PA, Zhang ZP, Fu GZ (1990). A study on drought adaptability and its physiological mechanism of summer maize. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica 5(4):54-60.
Wang J, Zhou ZC, Rao LB, Jin GQ, Li JM (2006). Physiological response of Liriodendron Chinese provenances with different phosphorus efficiency under low phosphorus stress. Forest Research 19(4):527-531.
Wang KL (2015). Resources and distribution of rattan in China. Plant Science Journal 33(3):320-325.
Wang ZW, Mou SW, Yan LL, Han QF, Yang BP (2013). Effects of physiological and biochemical characteristics and growth under water stress in seedling of spring maize. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 33(2):0343-0351.
Wei H, Cheng SP, He F, Liang W, Wu ZB, Cheng SP (2014). Growth responses and adaptations of the emergent macrophyte Acorus calamus Linn. to different water-level fluctuation. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 29(1):101-115.
Wu YB, Ye B (2016). Effects of combined elevated temperature and drought stress on anti-oxidative enzyme activities and reactive oxygen species metabolism of Broussonetia papyrifera seedlings. Acta Ecologica Sinica 36(2):403-410.
Xie YG, Liao XF, Zhang DK, Liu JM, Zhao XP, Wen P (2013). Effect of shading treatments on growth and physiological characteristics of Drepanostachyum luodianense. Guangdong Agricultural Sciences 40(12):49-53.
Xue W, Li XY, Zhu JT, Lin LS, Wang YJ (2011). Effects of shading on leaf morphology and response characteristics of photosynthesis in Alhagi sparsifolia. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology 35(1):82-90.
Yang Y, Liu Q, Han C, Qiao YZ, Yao XQ, Yin HJ (2007). Influence of water stress and low irradiance on morphological and physiological characteristics of Picea asperata seedlings. Photosynthetica 45(4):613-619.
Yang L, He ZJ, Zhao WJ, Jia GF, Lai LM, She H, … Zheng YR (2017). Growth, physiological, and biochemical responses of Rhodiola kirilowii seedlings to water and shading. Acta Ecologica Sinica 37(14):4706-4714.
Yin GT, Xu HC, Zhang WL (1988). A preliminary study on the effect of different levels of light intensity on the growth of rattan seedlings. Forest Research 1(5):548-552.
Yin GT, Xu HC, Zhang WL, Fu JG, Zeng BS (1993). Study on the collection and introduction of rattan species. Forest Research 6(6):609-617.
Yuan XK, Yang ZQ, Li YX, Liu Q, Han W (2016). Effects of different levels of water stress on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant enzyme activities of greenhouse tomato. Photosynthetica 54(1):28-39.
Copyright (c) 2020 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.