Spatial Distribution of Glomalin-related Soil Proteins in Coniferous and Broadleaf mixed Temperate Forest


  • Yongming WANG Henan University of Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Luoyang, 471003 (CN)
  • Chunhua JI China Agricultural University, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100094 (CN)
  • Zhaoyong SHI Henan University of Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Luoyang, 471003 (CN)
  • Xubin YIN Henan University of Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Luoyang, 471003 (CN)
  • Chenzhou LIU Henan University of Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Luoyang, 471003 (CN)



arbuscular mycorrhiza; GRSP; Mt. Changbai; spatial autocorrelation; temperate forest


Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), as an important component of soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, is a glycoprotein produced by the hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which play a vital role in carbon and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem. Here we investigated the spatial distribution of GRSP in plant community of the dominated species not associated with AMF based on a typical coniferous and broad-leaved temperate forest in Mt. Changbai, Northeastern China. Spatial distribution of GRSP including easily extractable GRSP (EEG) and total GRSP (TG) is represented by Moran’s I on different soil depth among seven soil layers of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-100 cm. The concentrations of EEG and TG decreased with the increase of soil depth according to a logarithmic function. The Moran’s I coefficient of GRSP was negative in all soil layers except TG in 20-30 cm and 50-70 cm soil layers. When EEG and TG were considered, the Moran’s I coefficient was positive in majority of soil layers within the separation distance of less than 4 m but in soil layers of 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm for EEG and in 30-50 cm for TG. The largest Moran’s I coefficient including EEG and TG was observed in the soil layer of 5-10 cm. The spatial distribution of GRSP was discrete in typical coniferous and broad-leaved temperate forest, and was affected by mycorrhizal colonization rate, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen.


Metrics Loading ...


Akmatov MK, Steffen A, Holstiege J, Hering R, Schulz m, Batzing J (2018). Trends and regional variations in the administrative prevalence of attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Germany. Scientific Reports 8(1):17029.

Anselin L (1983). Spatial processes-models and applications. Economic Geography 59(3):322-325.

Baltagi BH (2005). A companion to theoretical econometrics. Peking University Press 28(3):709.

Blazquez CA, Picarte B, Calderon, JF, Losada F (2018). Spatial autocorrelation analysis of cargo trucks on highway crashes in Chile. Accident Analysis and Prevention 120:195-210.

Chaudhary VB, O'Dell TE, Rillig MC, Johnson NC (2014). Multiscale patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity in semiarid shrublands. Fungal Ecology 12:32-43.

Cui XC, Hu JL, Lin XG, Wang FY, Chen RR, Wang JH, Zhu JG (2013). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate ozone stress on nitrogen nutrition of field wheat. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 15:1043-1052.

Darcy JL, King AJ, Gendron EMS, Schmidt SK (2017). Spatial autocorrelation of microbial communities atop a debris-covered glacier is evidence of a supraglacial chronosequence. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 93(8). doi:10.1093/femsec/fix095.

Deakin G, Tilston EL, Bennett J, Passey T, Harrison N, Fernandez-Fernandez F, Xu XM (2018). Spatial structuring of soil microbial communities in commercial apple orchards. Applied Soil Ecology 130:1-12.

Du HW, Wang Y, Zhuang DF, Jiang XS (2017). Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics in the natural plague foci of Chinese Mongolian gerbils based on spatial autocorrelation. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 6(1):124.

Fokom R, Mofor CT, Wakam LN, Megapche ELN, Tchameni S, Nwaga D, … Amvam PHA (2013). Glomalin, carbon, nitrogen and soil aggregate stability as affected by land use changes in the humid forest zone in south Cameroon. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 11(4):581-592.

Gillespie AW, Farrell RE, Walley FL, Ross ARS, Leinweber P, Eckhardt KU (2011). Glomalin-related soil protein contains non-mycorrhizal-related heat-stable proteins, lipids and humic materials. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43(4):766-777.

Godbold DL, Hoosbeek MR, Lukac M, Cotrufo MF, Janssens IA, Ceulemans R (2006). Mycorrhizal hyphal turnover as a dominant process for carbon input into soil organic matter. Plant and Soil 281(1-2):15-24.

Guo LD (2013). Progress of the function of mycorrhizal fungi in the cycle of carbon and nitrogen. Microbiology/Weishengwuxue Tongbao 40(1):158-171.

He XL, Li YP, Zhao LL (2010). Dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin in the rhizosphere of Artemisia ordosica Krasch. in Mu Us sandland, China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(8):1313-1319.

Hempel S, Götzenberger L, Kühn I, Michalski SG, Rillig MC, Zobel M, Moora M (2013). Mycorrhizas in the Central European flora: relationships with plant life history traits and ecology. Ecology 94(6):1389-1399.

Hodge A, Campbell CD, Fitter AH (2001). An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material. Nature 413(6853):297-299.

Horn S, Caruso T, Verbruggen E, Rillig MC, Hempel S (2014). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales. ISME Journal 8(11):2231-2242.

Jing X, Sanders NJ, Shi Y, Chu H, Classen AT, Zhao K, … He JS (2015). The links between ecosystem multifunctionality and above- and belowground biodiversity are mediated by climate. Nature Communications 6:8159.

Kim D (2013). Incorporation of multi-scale spatial autocorrelation in soil moisture-landscape modeling. Physical Geography 34(6):441-455.

Kim D, Shin YH (2016). Spatial autocorrelation potentially indicates the degree of changes in the predictive power of environmental factors for plant diversity. Ecological Indicators 60:1130-1141.

Kohmei K, Satoshi Y, Hirotoshi S, Akifumi ST, Amane H, Hirokazu T (2018). Mycorrhizal fungi mediate the direction and strength of plant-soil feedbacks differently between arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal communities. Communications Biology 1(1):196.

Kubisch P, Hertel D (2015). Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass? Frontiers in Plant Science 6:64.

Liang ER, Wang XB, Cai DX, Liu, S, Wang Y (2007). Spatial autocorrelation analysis on soil organic carbon distribution in Henan Province. The Journal of Applied Ecology 18(6):1305-1310.

Lin G, Mccormack ML, Guo D (2015). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal effects on plant competition and community structure. Journal of Ecology 103(5):1224-1232.

Liu C, Song XX, Wang L, Wang DL, Zhou XM, Liu J, … Lin HJ (2016). Effects of grazing on soil nitrogen spatial heterogeneity depend on herbivore assemblage and pre-grazing plant diversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 53(1):242-250.

Liu JL, Zhang LL, Fu Q, Ren GQ, Liu L, Yu P, Tan SY (2018). Spatial variability of soil particle-size distribution heterogeneity in farmland. Transactions of the ASABE 61(2):591-601.

Liu RJ, Li XL (2000). Arbuscular mycorrhiza and its application. Beijing, Science Press.

McGuire KL (2007). Common ectomycorrhizal networks may maintain mono- dominance in a tropical rain forest. Ecology 88(3):567-574.

Öpik M, Zobel M, Cantero JJ, Davison J, Facelli, José M, Hiiesalu I (2013). Global sampling of plant roots expands the described molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 23(5):411-430.

Prescott CE (2010). Litter decomposition: what controls it and how can we alter it to sequester more carbon in forest soils? Biogeochemistry 101(1-3):133-149.

Rillig MC, Wright SF, Nichols KA, Schmidt WF, Torn MS (2001). Large contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to soil carbon pools in tropical forest soils. Plant and Soil 233(2):167-177.

Roldan A, Salinas JR. (2007).Soil sustainability indicators following conservation tillage practices under subtropical maize and bean crops. Soil and Tillage Research 93(2):273-282.

Rotter P, Maly S, Sanka O, Sanka M, Cizmar D, Zbiral J, … Kalabova T (2017). Is glomalin an appropriate indicator of forest soil reactive nitrogen status? Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 180(6):694-704.

Sadeq M (2016). Spatial patterns and secular trends in human leishmaniasis incidence in morocco between 2003 and 2013. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 5(1):48.

Shen Y, Zhang LP, Fang X (2019). Spatiotemporal patterns of recent PM2.5 concentrations over typical urban agglomerations in China. The Science of the Total Environment 655:13-26.

Shi Z, Chen Y, Hou X, Gao S, Wang F (2013a). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with tree peony in 3 geographic locations in China. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37(6):726-733.

Shi Z, Wang F, Liu Y (2012). Response of soil respiration under different mycorrhizal strategies to precipitation and temperature. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12(3):411-420.

Shi ZY, Liu DH, Wang FY (2013b). Spatial variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two vegetatiob types in gurbantonggut desert. Contemporary Problems of Ecology 20(4):523-533.

Shi ZY, Zhang XL, Xu SX, Lan ZJ, Li K, Wang YM, … Chen YL (2017). Mycorrhizal relationship in lupines: a review. Legume Research 40(6):965-973.

Steinberg PD, Rillig MC (2003). Differential decomposition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and glomalin. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35(1):191-194.

Stürmer S, Oliveira LZ, Morton JB (2018). Gigasporaceae versus Glomeraceae (phylum Glomeromycota): a biogeographic tale of dominance in maritime sand dunes. Fungal Ecology 32:49-56.

Tang HL, Liu L, Wang L, Chao-Jie BA (2009). Effect of land use type on profile distribution of glomalin: effect of land use type on profile distribution of glomalin. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 17(6):1137-1142.

Urcelay C, Díaz S (2003). The mycorrhizal dependence of subordinates determines the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant diversity. Ecology Letters 6(5):388-391.

Wang FY, Tong RJ, Shi ZY, Xu XF, He XH (2011). Inoculations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase vegetable yields and decrease phoxim concentrations in carrot and green onion and their soils. PLoS One 6(2):e16949.

Wang B, Qiu YL (2006). Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants. Mycorrhiza 16(5):299-363.

Wang Q, Lu HL, Chen JY, Hong HL, Liu JC, Li JW, Yan CL (2018). Spatial distribution of glomalin-related soil protein and its relationship with sediment carbon sequestration across a mangrove forest. Science of the Total Environment 613:548-556.

Wang W, Zhong Z, Wang Q, Wan H, Fu Y, He X (2017). Glomalin contributed more to carbon, nutrients in deeper soils, and differently associated with climates and soil properties in vertical profiles. Scientific Reports 7(1):13003.

Wright SF, Green VS, Cavigelli MA (2007). Glomalin in aggregate size classes from three different farming systems. Soil & Tillage Research 94(2):546-549.

Wright SF, Upadhyaya A (1998a). A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 198(1):97-107.

Wright SF, Upadhyaya A, Buyer JS (1998b). Comparison of N-linked oligosaccharides of giomalin from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soils by capillary electrophoresis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(13):1853-1857.

Wu QS, He XH, Zou YN, He KP, Sun YH, Cao MQ (2012). Spatial distribution of glomalin-related soil protein and its relationships with root mycorrhization, soil aggregates, carbohydrates, activity of protease and β-glucosidase in the rhizosphere of citrus unshiu. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 45:181-183.

Wu QS, Wang S, Cao MQ, Zou YN, Yao YX (2014). Tempo-spatial distribution and related functionings of root glomalin and glomalin-related soil protein in a citrus rhizosphere. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 24(1):245-251.

Xiao L, Zhang Y, Li P, Xu GC, Shi P, Zhang Y (2019). Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on aggregate-associated organic carbon and glomalin-related soil protein in natural-succession grassland and Chinese pine forest on the Loess Plateau. Geoderma 334:1-8.

Yang Y, Dou YX, Liu D, An SS (2017). Spatial pattern and heterogeneity of soil moisture along a transect in a small catchment on the Loess Plateau. Journal of Hydrology 550: 566-477.

Zhang J, Tang X, Zhong S, Yin G, Gao Y, He X (2017). Recalcitrant carbon concentrations in glomalin-related soil protein facilitate soil organic carbon preservation in tropical forests. Scientific Reports 7(1):2391.




How to Cite

WANG, Y., JI, C., SHI, Z., YIN, X., & LIU, C. (2019). Spatial Distribution of Glomalin-related Soil Proteins in Coniferous and Broadleaf mixed Temperate Forest. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(4), 1087–1093.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha47411621