Bagging Affecting Sugar and Anthocyanin Metabolism in the Ripening Period of Grape Berries


  • Qian ZHA Research Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Shanghai Key Lab of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403 (CN)
  • Xiao Jun XI Research Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Shanghai Key Lab of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403 (CN)
  • Yani HE Research Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Shanghai Key Lab of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403 (CN)
  • Ai Li JIANG Research Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Shanghai Key Lab of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403 (CN)



fructose; glucose; grapevine; light stress


Grapevine is one of the most important fruit-bearing plants worldwide, for which bagging treatments can effectively improve fruit quality. However, the low-light conditions caused by bagging can delay grape berry maturation. Here, we analyzed glucose, fructose, and anthocyanin contents and the expression of sugar and anthocyanin-metabolism pathway genes in the grape berries of two cultivars, ‘Shenhua’ and ‘Shenfeng’, under different bagging treatments. Color development was incomplete in bagged grape berries and their soluble sugar contents were lower than those detected in un-bagged fruits. However, fruit color and SSC could be rapidly restored to normal levels after removing bags. Light affects the accumulation of sugar in grape berries, especially near the maturation period, as well as the contents and compositions of anthocyanins in the skin of grape berries. Although light helps in the accumulation of anthocyanins, significant differences were detected in anthocyanin composition between the two grapevine varieties. In addition, the expressions of myofibroblastic regulatory genes in the anthocyanin pathway were affected by light, and the light-responsive elements elongated hypocotyl 5 and constitutive photomorphogenic 1 acted synergistically to control grape berry coloration. Overall, these results provide a theoretical basis for the maturation mechanism in grape berries.


Albert NW, Lewis DH, Zhang H, Irving LJ, Jameson PE, Davies KM (2009). Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(7):2191-2202.

Ang LH, Chattopadhyay S, Wei N, Oyama T, Okada K, Batschauer A, Deng XW (1998). Molecular interaction between COP1and HY5 defines a regulatory switch for light control of Arabidopsis development. Molecular Cell 1(2):213-222.

Azuma A, Kobayashi S, Goto-Yamamoto N, Shiraishi M, Mitani N, Yakushiji H, Koshita Y (2009). Color recovery in berries of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) ‘Benitaka’, a bud sport of ‘Italia’, is caused by a novel allele at the VvmybA1 locus. Plant Science 176(4):470-478.

Chattopadhyay S, Ang LH, Puente P, Deng XW, Wei N (1998). Arabidopsis bZIP protein HY5 directly interacts with light-responsive promoters in mediating light control of gene expression. Plant Cell 10(5):673-683.

Coombe BG (1989). The grape berry as a sink. Acta Horticulturae 239:149-158.

Coombe BG (1992). Research on development and ripening of the grape berry. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 43(1):101-110.

Cutanda-Perez MC, Ageorges A, Gomez C, Vialet S, Terrier N, Romieu C (2009). Ectopic expression of VlmybA1 in grapevine activates a narrow set of genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis and transport. Plant Molecular Biology 69(6):633-648.

Davies C, Robinson SP (1996). Sugar accumulation in grape berries (cloning of two putative vacuolar invertase cDNAs and their expression in grapevine tissues). Plant Physiology 111(1):275-283.

Deluc L, Bogs J, Walker AR, Ferrier T, Decendit A, Merillon JM, … Barrieu F (2008). The transcription factor VvMYB5b contributes to the regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in developing grape berries. Plant Physiology 147(4):2041-2053.

Ding CK, Chachin K, Ueda Y, Imahori Y, Wang CY (2002). Modified atmosphere packaging maintains postharvest quality of loquat fruit. Postharvest Biology Technology 24(3):341-348.

Dokoozlian NK, Kliewer WM (1996). Influence of light on grape berry growth and composition varies during fruit development. Journal of American Society Horticulture Science 121(5):869-874.

Esteban A, Alia I, Tobin M J, Gil A, Gordo F, Vallverdú I, … Torres A (1999). Effect of spontaneous breathing trial duration on outcome of attempts to discontinue mechanical ventilation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159(2):512-518.

Fang HH, Chiou KD, Liang YS (2015). Bagging management and breeding strategy for red sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.). International Symposium on GA3 Tropical Fruit (Guava, Wax Apple, Pineapple and Sugar Apple) 1166:203-208.

FAO (2016). FAO. Retrieved 2018 March 21 from

Feng F, Li M, Ma F, Cheng L (2014). The effects of bagging and debagging on external fruit quality, metabolites and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in ‘Jonagold’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Scientia Horticulturae 165:123-131.

Figueiredo JL, Pereira MFR, Freitas MMA, Órfão JJM (1999). Modification of the surface chemistry of activated carbons. Carbon 37(9):1379-1389.

Gollop R, Even S, Colovatsolova V, Perl A (2002). Expression of the grape dihydroflavonol reductase gene and analysis of its promoter region. Journal of Experimental Botany 53(373):1397-1409.

Gollop R, Farhi S, Perl A (2001). Regulation of the leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene expression in Vitis vinifera. Plant Science 161(3):579-588.

Grotewold E (2006). The science of flavonoids. Springer, New York pp 239-267.

Guillaumie S, Ilg A, Réty S, Brette M, Trossat-Magnin C, Decroocq S, … Gomès E (2013). Genetic analysis of the biosynthesis of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, a major grape-derived aroma compound impacting wine quality. Plant Physiology 162(2):604-615.

He F, Yan G , Liang N , Pan Q , Wang J, Reeve MJ, Duan C (2010). Biosynthesis of anthocyanins and their regulation in colored grapes. Molecules 15(12):9057-9091.

Hong W, Ying W, Shuang XU, Zhu WM (2015). Light quality-controlled phytochemicals biosynthesis in vegetables and fruits. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 16(9):2029-2035.

Jeong ST, Goto-Yamamoto N, Kobayashi S, Esaka M (2004). Effects of plant hormones and shading on the accumulation of anthocyanins and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in grape berry skins. Plant Science 167(2):247-252.

Jiang M, Ren L, Lian H, Liu Y, Chen H (2016). Novel insight into the mechanism underlying light-controlled anthocyanin accumulation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Plant Science 249:46-58.

Karanjalker GR, Ravishankar KV, Shivashankara KS, Esaka M (2018). Influence of bagging on color, anthocyanin and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in peel of red colored mango cv. ‘Lily’. Erwerbs-Obstbau 60(4):281-287.

Keller M, Arnink KJ, Hrazdina G (1998.) Interaction of nitrogen availability during bloom and light intensity during veraison. I. Effects on grapevine growth, fruit development, and ripening. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 49(3):333-340.

Kim SH, Lee JR, Hong ST, Yoo YK, An G, Kim SR (2003). Molecular cloning and analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes preferentially expressed in apple skin. Plant Science 165(2):403-413.

Lamikanra O, Inyang ID, Leong S (1995). Distribution and effect of grape maturity on organic acid content of red muscadine grapes. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 43(12):3026-3028.

Lau OS, Deng XW (2012). The photomorphogenic repressors COP1 and DET1: 20 years later. Trends in Plant Science 17(10):584-593.

Lecourieux F, Kappel C, Lecourieux D, Serrano A, Torres E, Arce-Johnson P, Delrot S (2013). An update on sugar transport and signalling in grapevine. Journal of Experimental Botany 65(3):821-832.

Liang ZC, Owens CL, Zhong GY, Cheng LL (2011). Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm. Food Chemistry 129(3):940-950.

Liang ZC, Sang M, Wu BH, Ma AH, Zhao SJ, Zhong GY, Li SH (2012) Inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population. Euphytica 186(2):343-356.

Liu B, Zuo Z, Liu H, Liu X, Lin C (2011). Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 interacts with SPA1 to suppress COP1 activity in response to blue light. Genes Development 25(10):1029-1034.

Liu HF, Wu BH, Fan PG, Li SH, Li LS (2006). Sugar and acid concentrations in 98 grape cultivars analyzed by principal component analysis. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 86(10):1526-1536.

Lu CY, Zheng XY, Jia HJ, Lu RG, Teng YW (2011). Effects of root restriction on soluble sugar contents and related enzyme activities in ‘Jumeigui’ grape berries. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 38(5):825-832.

Matus J T, Aquea F, Arce-Johnson P (2008). Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes. BMC Plant Biology 8(1):83.

Matus JT, Loyola R, Vega A, Peňa-Neira A, Bordeu E, Arce-Johnson P, Alcalde JA (2009). Post-veraison sunlight exposure induces MYB-mediated transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin and flavonol synthesis in berry skins of Vitis vinifera. Journal of Experiment Botany 60(3):853-867.

Merzlyak MN, Chivkunova OB (2000). Light-stress-induced pigment changes and evidence for anthocyanin photoprotection in apples. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 55(2-3):155-163.

Osterlund MT, Wei N, Deng XW (2000). The roles of photoreceptor systems and the COP1-targeted destabilization of HY5 in light control of Arabidopsis seedling development. Plant Physiology 124(4):1520-1524.

Petroni K, Tonelli C (2011). Recent advances on the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in reproductive organs. Plant Science 181(3):219-229.

Piazza P, Procissi A, Jenkins GI, Tonelli C (2002). Members of the cl/pl1 regulatory gene family mediate the response of maize aleurone and mesocotyl to different light qualities and cytokines. Plant Physiology 128(3):1077-1086.

Procissi A, Dolfini S, Ronchi A, Tonelli C (1997). Light-dependent spatial and temporal expression of pigment regulatory genes in developing maize seeds. Plant Cell 9(9):1547-1557.

Schulze-lefert P, Becker-andré M, Schulz W, Hahlbrock K, Dangl J (1989). Functional architecture of the light-responsive chalcone synthase promoter from parsley. Plant Cell 1(7):707-714.

Sharma RR, Sanikommu VR (2018). Preharvest fruit bagging for better protection and postharvest quality of horticultural produce. In: Preharvest modulation of postharvest fruit and vegetable quality. Academic Press pp 455-489.

Sharma RR, Reddy SVR, Jhalegar MJ (2014a). Pre-harvest fruit bagging: a useful approach for plant protection and improved post-harvest fruit quality-a review. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 89(2):101-113.

Sharma RR, Sagar VR, Kumar K (2014b). Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on colour, quality and bitter pit disorder in 'Royal Delicious' apple. NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository 22(1):53-57.

Shin J, Park E, Choi G (2007). PIF3 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in an HY5-dependent manner with both factors directly binding anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters in Arabidopsis. Plant Journal 49(6):981-994.

Shiraishi M (1993). Three descriptors for sugars to evaluate grape germplasm. Euphytica 71(1-2):99-106.

Smart RE, Smith SM, Winchester RV (1988) Light quality and quantity effects on fruit ripening for Cabernet Sauvignon. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 39(3):250-258.

Takos A, Robinson S, Walker A (2006) Transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid pathway in the skin of dark grown Cripps red apples in response to sunlight. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 81(4):735-744.

Tanaka Y, Sasaki N, Ohmiya A (2008). Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids. Plant Journal 54(4):733-749.

Terrier N, Glissant D, Grimplet J, Barrieu F, Abbal P, Couture C, … Hamdi S (2005). Isogene specific oligo arrays reveal multifaceted changes in gene expression during grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) development. Planta 222(5):832-847.

Vandesompele J, De Preter K, Pattyn F, Poppe B, Roy NV, Paepe AD, Speleman F (2002). Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biology 3(7):0034.1.

Wang B, He JJ, Bai Y, Yu XM, Li JF, Zhang CX, … Wang SP (2013) Root restriction affected anthocyanin composition and up-regulated the transcription of their biosynthetic genes during berry development in ‘Summer Black’ grape. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 35(7):2205-2217.

Wang H, Ma LG, Li JM, Zhao H Y, Deng XW (2001.) Direct interaction of Arabidopsis cryptochromes with COP1 in light control development. Science 294(5540):154-158.

Wang SY, Chen CT, Wang CY (2009). The influence of light and maturity on fruit quality and flavonoid content of red raspberries. Food Chemistry 112(3):676-684.

Xi XJ, Zha Q, Jiang A L, Tian YH (2016). Impact of cluster thinning on transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes in ‘Summer Black’ grapes. Plant Physiology Biochemistry 104:180-187.

Xi XJ, Zha Q, Jiang A L, Tian YH (2018). Stimulatory effect of bunch thinning on sugar accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in ‘Shenhua’ grape berry (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca). Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 24(2):158-165.

Yang HQ, Tang RH, Cashmore AR (2001). The signaling mechanism of Arabidopsis CRY1 involves direct interaction with COP1. Plant Cell 13(12):2573-2587.

Yen C R, Koch KE (1990). Developmental changes in translocation and localization of 14C-labeled assimilates in grapefruit: Light and dark CO2 fixation by leaves and fruit. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science 115(5):815-819.

Zhang H, He H, Wang X, Wang X, Yang X, Li L (2011). Genome-wide mapping of the HY5-mediated gene networks in Arabidopsis that involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Plant Journal 65(3):346-358.

Zheng Y, Li JH, Xin HP, Wang N, Guan L, Wu BH, Li SH (2013). Anthocyanin profile and gene expression in berry skin of two red Vitis vinifera grape cultivars that are sunlight dependent versus sunlight independent. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 19(2):238-248.

Zhu X, Zhang C, Wu W, Li X, Zhang C, Fang J (2017). Enzyme activities and gene expression of starch metabolism provide insights into grape berry development. Horticulture Research 4:17018.




How to Cite

ZHA, Q., XI, X. J., HE, Y., & JIANG, A. L. (2019). Bagging Affecting Sugar and Anthocyanin Metabolism in the Ripening Period of Grape Berries. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(4), 1194–1205.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha47411577