Seed Vigour Tests to Estimate Seedling Emergence in Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) Seed Lots


  • Ibrahim DEMIR University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 06110, Ankara (TR)
  • Burcu B. KENANOGLU Usak University, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science, Horticulture Department, Usak (TR)
  • Eren ÖZDEN Igdir University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Igdir (TR)



accelerated aging test; electrical conductivity; mean germination time; radicle emergence test; seed vigour


This work was carried out to estimate field and controlled room seedling emergence potential through seed vigour tests in cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds. Early radicle emergence percentages after 12 (RE12h), 24 (RE24h) and 36 (RE36h) hours of germination test, mean germination time, accelerated aging (45 °C, 100% RH, 24 h), electrical conductivity (EC) of soaking water (40 ml, 50 seeds, 20 °C), after 16 hours (EC16h) and 24 hours (EC24h), and EC16h and EC24h after accelerated ageing (AA, 45 °C, 100% RH, 24h) were tested as vigour tests in ten commercial seed lots of cress. Standard laboratory germination ranged between 88 and 93%. Seeds were sown on two occasions in field and controlled room conditions, and seedling emergence percentages were determined after 30 days in the soil and 14 days in the controlled room. Seedling emergence ranged between 67 and 85% and 59 and 83% in the first and second sowings in the field. These values were 75 and 92% in controlled room sowing. Vigour tests were correlated to seedling emergence potential at various significance levels but RE24h and EC16h showed the highest correlation coefficient values (p < 0.001) in all three sowing conditions as r = 0.879-0.988 in RE24h, and r = 0.902-0.962 in EC16h. Results indicated that early radicle emergence percentages after 24 hours (RE24h) and electrical conductivity value after 16 hours (EC16h) can be successfully used to estimate the seedling emergence potential of cress seeds in field and controlled room conditions.


Davidson KGV, Moore FD, Roos EE, Nath S, Sowa S (1994). Comparison of seed-quality indices resulting from single-seed electroconductivity measurements. HortScience 29:1158-1163.

Dell’Aquila A (1987). Mean germination time as a monitor of the seed aging. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 25:761-768.

Demir I, Ermis S, Mavi K, Matthews S (2008). Mean germination time of pepper seed lots (Capsicum annuum) predicts size and uniformity of seedlings in germination tests and transplant modules. Seed Science and Technology 36:21-30.

Demir I, Celikkol T, Sarikamis G, Eksi C (2011). Vigor tests to estimate seedling emergence potential and longevity in Viola seed lots. HortiScience 46:402-405.

Demir I, Cebeci C, Guloksuz T (2012). Electrical conductivity measurements to predict germination of commercially available radish seed lots. Seed Science and Technology 40:229-237.

Finch-Savage WE (1995). Influence of seed quality on crop establishment, growth and yield, in: A.S. Basra (Ed.), Seed Quality. Basic Mechanisms and Agricultural Implications, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, pp 45-80.

Hampton JG, Tekrony DM (1995). Handbook of Vigor Test Methods, International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

ISTA (2017). International Rules for Seed Testing, International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

Khajeh-Hosseini M, Nasehzadeh M, Matthews S (2010). Rate of physiological germination relates to the percentage normal seedlings in standard germination tests of naturally aged seed lots of oilseed rape. Seed Science and Technology 38:602-611.

Khajeh-Hosseini M, Rezazadeh M (2011). The electrical conductivity of soak-water of chikpea seeds provides a quick test indicative of field emergence. Seed Science and Technology 39:692-696.

Lv YY, Wang YR, Powell AA (2016). Frequent individual counts of radicle emergence and mean just germination time predict seed vigour of Avena sativa and Elymus nutans. Seed Science and Technology 44:189-198.

Marcos-Filho M (2015). Seed vigor testing: an overwiew of the pat, present and future perspectives. Scientia Agricola 72:363-374.

Matthews S, Khajeh-Hosseini M (2006). Mean germination time as an indicator of emergence performance in soil of seed lots of maize (Zea mays). Seed Science and Technology 34:339-347.

Matthews S, Powell AA (2011). Towards automated single counts of radicle emergence to predict seed and seedling vigour. Seed Testing International 142:44-48.

Matthews S, Noli E, Demir I, Khajeh-Hosseini M, Wagner MH (2012). Evaluation of seed quality: from physiology to international standardisation. Seed Science Research 22:69-73.

Mavi K, Demir I, Matthews S (2010). Mean germination time estimates the relative emergence of seed lots of three cucurbit crops under stress conditions. Seed Science and Technology 38:14-25.

Mavi K, Powell AA, Matthews S (2016). Rate of radicle emergence and leakage of electrolytes provide quick predictons of percentage normal seedlings in standard germination tests of radish (Raphanus sativus). Seed Science and Technology 44:393-409.

McDonald MB (1999). Seed deterioration: physiology, repair and assesment. Seed Science and Technology 27:177-237.

Oakley K, Kester ST, Geneve RL (1994). Computer-aided digital image analysis of seedling size and growth rate for assessing vigor in Impatiens. Seed Science and Technology 32:907-915.

Ozden E, Memis N, Kapcak D, Durmus E, Ozdamar C, Ozdemir M, Demir I (2017). Electrical conductivity relates seed germination in cress. In: Proceedings of 2‘nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress. Tekirdag: pp 476-481.

Powell AA, Matthews S (2012). Seed aging/repair hypothesis leads to new testing methods. Seed Technology 34:15-25.

Powell AA, Mavi K (2016). Application of the radicle emergence test to radish (Raphanus sativus) seed. In Method Validation Reports 2016, pp 65-72.

Steere WC, Levengood WC, Bondie JM (1981). An electronic analyzer for evaluating seed germination and vigour. Seed Science and Technology 9:567-576.

TeKrony DM (2003). Precision is an essential component in seed vigour testing. Seed Science and Technology 31:435-447.




How to Cite

DEMIR, I., KENANOGLU, B. B., & ÖZDEN, E. (2019). Seed Vigour Tests to Estimate Seedling Emergence in Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) Seed Lots. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(3), 881–886.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha47311453