Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils Isolated from Two Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Cultivars
In the studies conducted in 2016-2017, the chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the herb of two thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) cultivars was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analyses of the volatile oils of T. vulgaris L. cv. ‘English Winter’ and cv. ‘Summer Thyme de Provence’ led to the identification of 80 and 73 constituents, respectively. The main components found in the oil of ‘English Winter’ cultivar were thymol (44.97 and 38.06% in 2016 and 2017, respectively), p-cymene (7.61 and 10.34%), γ-terpinene (7.08 and 6.66%) and carvacrol (5.11 and 8.27%). Similarly, thymol (36.82 and 37.32%), p-cymene (15.73 and 11.20%), γ-terpinene (5.34 and 11.09%) and carvacrol (6.50 and 5.35%) dominated in the essential oil of ‘Summer Thyme de Provence’ cultivar. However, the higher content of thymol was noted for cultivar ‘English Winter’, while cultivar ‘Summer Thyme de Provence’ was richer in p-cymene.
Adams RP (2007). Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 4th ed. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, Illinois USA.
Agili FA (2014). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antitumor activity of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 21(10):1670-1676.
Al-Asmari AK, Athar MT, Al-Faraidy AA, Almuhaiza MS (2017). Chemical composition of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris collected from Saudi Arabian market. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 7(2):147-150.
Alizadeh A (2013). Essential oil constituents, phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Iranian and British Thymus vulgaris L. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 6(4):213-218.
Anzlovar S, Baricevic D, Avgustin JA, Koce JD (2014). Essential oil of common thyme as a natural antimicrobial food additive. Food Technology and Biotechnology 52(2):263-268.
Babushok VI, Linstrom PJ, Zenkevich IG (2011). Retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 40 (4):1-47.
Boruga O, Jianu C, Misca C, Golet I, Gruia AT, Horhat FG (2014). Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. Journal of Medicine and Life 7(3):56-60.
Carlen C, Schaller M, Carron CA, Vouillamoz JF, Baroffio CA (2010). The new Thymus vulgaris L. hybrid cultivar ‘Varico 3’ compared to five established cultivars for Germany, France and Switzerland. Acta Horticulturae 860:161-166.
Chizzola R, Michitsch H, Franz C (2008). Antioxidant properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: Comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56(16):6897-6904.
Cornara L, La Rocca A, Marsili S, Mariotti MG (2000). Traditional uses of plants in the eastern Riviera (Liguria, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 125(1):16-30.
De Lisi A, Tedone L, Montesano V, Sarli G, Negro D (2011). Chemical characterisation of Thymus populations belonging from Southern Italy. Food Chemistry 125(4):1284-1286.
Duskova E, Dusek K, Smekalova K, Nosalkova M, Benicka S (2016). ESL 2: Genetic resources of Thymus vulgaris L. and T. vulgaris x T. Marschallianus Willd. in the Czech Republic. In: 6th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlingburg, Germany pp 56-58.
El Hattabi L, Talbaoui A, Amzazi S, Bakri Y, Harhar H, Costa J, … Tabyaoui M (2016). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of three essential oils from south of Morocco (Thymus satureoides, Thymus vulgaris and Chamaelum nobilis). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science 7(9):3110-3117.
European Pharmacopoeia 7.0 (2010). Strasbourg, Council of Europe pp 1252-1254.
Filipiak K, Wilkos S (1995). Statistical calculations. Description of the AWAR system. IUNG, Puławy R 324:1-52 [in Polish].
Guillen MD, Manzanos MJ (1998). Study of the composition of the different parts of a Spanish Thymus vulgaris L. plant. Food Chemistry 63(3):373-383.
Hudaib M, Aburjai T (2007). Volatile components of Thymus vulgaris L. from wild-growing and cultivated plants in Jordan. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 22(4):322-327.
Jukic M, Milos M (2005). Catalystic oxidation and antioxidant properties of thyme essential oils (Thymus vulgarae L.). Croatica Chemica Acta 78(1):105-110.
Marino M, Bersani C, Comi G (1999). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L. measured using a bioimpedometric method. Journal of Food Protection 62(9):1017-1023.
Marzec M, Polakowski C, Chilczuk R, Kolodziej B (2010). Evaluation of essential oil content, its chemical composition and price of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) raw material available in Poland. Herba Polonica 56(3):37-52.
Maqtari MAA, Alghalibi SM, Alhamzy EH (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris from Yemen. Turkish Journal of Biochemistry 36(4):342-349.
Ozcan M, Chalchat J-C (2004). Aroma profile of Thymus vulgaris L. growing wild in Turkey. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology 30(3-4):68-73.
Ozguven M, Tansi S (1998). Drug yield and essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. as in influenced by ecological and ontogenetical variation. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 22(6):537-542.
Porte A, Ronoel L, Godoy O (2008). Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) essential oil from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society 73(3):307-310.
Raal A, Arak E, Orav A (2005). Comparative chemical composition of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. from different geographical sources. Herba Polonica 1(2):10-17.
Satyal P, Murray BL, McFeeters RL, Setzer WN (2016). Essential oil characterization of Thymus vulgaris from various geographical locations. Foods 5(70):1-12.
Sharafzadeh S, Khosh-Khui M, Javidnia K, Alizadeh O, Ordookhani K (2010). Identification and comparison of essential oil components in leaf and stem of garden thyme grown under greenhouse conditions. Advances in Environmental Biology 4(3):520-523.
Stahl-Biskup E, Saez F (2002). Thyme: the genus Thymus. Taylor & Francis, London.
Syamasundar KV, Srinivasulu B, Stephen A, Ramesh S, Rao RR (2008). Chemical composition of volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris L. from Western Ghats of India. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops 17(3):255-258.
Thompson JD, Chalchat JC, Michet A, Linhart YB, Ehlers B (2003). Qualitative and quantitative variation on monoterpene co-occurrence and composition in the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29(4):859-880.
Torras J, Grau MD, Lopez JF, de las Heras FX (2007). Analysis of essential oils from chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris in Catalonia. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87(12):2327-2333.
Trindade H, Pedro LG, Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG (2018). Chemotypes and terpene synthase genes in Thymus genus: State of the art. Industrial Crops & Products 124:530-547.
Zawislak G (2007). Analysis of chemical composition of essential oil in the herb of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) grown in south-eastern Poland. Herba Polonica 53(3):241-245.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.