Characterization of the Spectrum of Solar Irradiance under Different Crop Protection Coverings in Mediterranean Conditions and Effect on the Interception of Photosynthetically Active Radiation
Plants use visible light and part of adjacent ultraviolet and near infrared regions for photosynthesis. Crop protection coverings enable plant cultivation in areas or seasons not suitable open field. However, the use of covering materials is a detriment to solar irradiance, which may decrease the photosynthetic rate. Here, the effect of two different covering materials, tempered glass and white polyethylene mesh, on solar irradiance was compared to open field (control) under real farming conditions. Relative irradiance (RI) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) were recorded along 380-780 nm wavelength spectrums in the two conditions at 10:00 h and 13:00 h. Also the efficiency of Capsicum peppers in capturing solar irradiance was evaluated in leaves as the reflectance of both RI and PPFD under the mentioned growing conditions. Low differences in RI among the three conditions were found, and the lowest values corresponded to glasshouse conditions. Differences were more obvious in PPFD and, compared to open field, both mesh greenhouse and glasshouse conditions provoked remarkable decreases in all the spectral bands, 50-55% and 75-80% respectively. Covering materials also differed on the ratio of reflected PPFD and incident PPFD. Glasshouse plants displayed the highest reflectance at both 10:00 h and 13:00 h (0.05-0.20), followed by mesh greenhouse (0.05-0.10), suggesting that glasshouse conditions might decrease the photosynthesis rate due to both PPFD decrease and reflectance, although the effect of polyethylene mesh should not be disregarded as it also decreases considerably PPFD. Our results have important implications for the physiology and the productivity of crops under different covering materials.
Abdel-Ghany AM, Al-Helai IM, Alzahrani SM, Alsadon AA, Ali IM, Elleithy RM (2012). Covering materials incorporating radiation-preventing techniques to meet greenhouse cooling challenges in arid regions: a review. The Scientific World Journal 906360.
Ahmad S, Raza I, Muhammad D, Ali H, Hussain S, Dogan H, Zia-ul-haq M (2015). Radiation, water, and nitrogen use efficiencies of Gossypium hirsutum L. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 39:825-837.
Al-Mahdouri A, Baneshi M, Gonome H, Okajima J, Maruyama S (2013). Evaluation of optical properties and termal performances of different greenhouse covering materials. Solar Energy 96:21-32.
Ali SA (2012). Modeling of some solar radiation available at different orientations of greenhouses. Journal Agricultural Engineering 29:1181-1196.
Aliniaeifard S, Hajilou J, Tabatabaei SJ (2016). Photosynthetic and growth responses of olive proline and salicylic acid under salinity condition. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napona 44:579-585.
Alsadon A, Al-Helal I, Ibrahim A, Abdel-Ghany A, Al-Zaharani S, Ashour T (2016). The effects of plastic greenhouse covering on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) growth. Ecological Engineering 87:305-312.
Baeza E, López JC (2012). Light transmission through greenhouse covers. Acta Horticulturae 956:425-440.
Bantis F, Ouzounis T, Radoglou K (2016). Artificial led lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimun basilicum, but variably affects transplant. Scientia Horticulturae 198:277-283.
Begon M, Fitter A (1995). Advances in ecological research, vol. 26. Academic Press Inc., Oxford, UK.
Bohren CF, Huffmann DR (2010). Absorption and scattering of light by small particles. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Bourget CM (2008). An introduction to light-emitting diodes. HortScience 43:1944-1946.
Cabrera-Bosquet L, Fournier C, Brichet N, Welcker C, Suard B, Tardieu F (2016). High-throughput estimation of incident light, light interception and radiation-use efficiency of thousands of plants in a phenotyping platform. New Phytologist 212:269-281.
Castilla N (2013). Greenhouse technology and management, 2nd edition. CABI, Croydon, UK.
CIE (2011). CIE Standard 017/E:2011. ILV: International Lighting Vocabulary, Comission Internationale de l’Éclariage, Vienna, Austria.
Dougher TAO, Bugbee B (2001). Differences in the response of wheat, soybean, and lettuce to reduced blue radiation. Photochemistry and Photobiology 73:199-207.
Dueck TA, Janse J, Eveleens BA, Kempkes, FLK, Marcelis LFM (2012). Growth of tomatoes under hybrid LED and HPS lighting. Acta Horticulturae 952:335-342.
Dumas Y, Dadomo M, Lucca GD, Grolier P, di Lucca G (2003). Effects of environmental factors and agricultural techniques on antioxidant content of tomatoes. Journal Science of Food and Agriculture 83:369-382.
Ekmekci Y, Terzioglu S (2000). Interactive effects of vernalization, photoperiod and light intensity on reproductive development of wheat cultivars. Turkish Journal Agriculture and Forestry 24:475-486.
Engindeniz S, Tuzel Y (2006). Economic analysis of organic greenhouse lettuce production in Turkey. Scientia Agricola 63:285-290.
Escobedo J, Gomes E, Oliveira A, Soares J (2011). Ratios of UV, PAR and NIR components to global solar radiation measured al Botucatu site in Brazil. Renewable Energy 36:169-178.
Hanson KJ (1963). The radiative effectiveness of plastic films for greenhouses. American Meteorological Society 2:793-797.
Hemming S, Mohammadkhani V, Dueck T A (2008). Diffuse greenhouse covering materials-material technology, measurements and evaluation of optical properties. Acta Horticulturae 797:469-475.
Hemming S, Mohammadkhani V, van Ruijven J (2014). Material technology of diffuse greenhouse covering materials – influence on light transmission, light scattering and light spectrum. Acta Horticulturae 1037:883-895.
Hikosaka K, Ishikawa K, Borjigidai A, Muller O, Onoda Y (2005). Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis: mechanisms involved in the changes in temperature dependence of photosynthetic rate. Journal of Experimental Botany 57:291-302.
Hui-zhi C, Min Z, Bhesh B, Zhimei G (2018). Applicability of a colorimetric indicator laber for monitoring freshness of fresh-cut green bell pepper. Postharvest Biology and Technology 140:85-92.
Iqbal M (1983). An introduction to solar radiation. Academic Press, New York, USA.
Kahlen K, Stützel H (2011). Modelling photo-modulated internode elongation in growing glasshouse cucumber canopies. New Phytologist 190:697-708.
Kajihara KJ (2007). Improvement of vacuum-ultraviolet transparency of silica glass by modification of point defects. Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan 115:85-91.
Kitamura R, Pilon L, Jonasz M (2007). Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature. Applied Optics 46:8118-8133.
Kosvancova M, Urban O, Navratil M, Spunda V, Robson T, Marek M (2009). Blue radiation stimulates photosynthetic induction in Fagus sylvativa L. Photosynthetica 47:388-398.
Kottek M, Grieser J, Beck B, Rudolf B, Rubel F (2006). World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 15:259-263.
Lagarrea S, Fereres A, Karnieli A, Weintraub PG (2010). Comparison of UV?absorbing nets in pepper crops: Spectral Properties, effects on plants and pest control. Photochemistry and Photobiology 86:324-330.
Nhut DN, Huy NP, Tai NT, Nam NB, Luan VQ, Hien VT, Tung HT, Vihn BT, Luan TC (2015). Light-emitting diodes and their potencial in callus growth, plantlet development and saponin accumulation during somatic embryogenesis of Panax vietnamensis Ha et grushv. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 29:299-308.
Nishio JN (2000). Why are higher plants green? Evolution of the higher plat photosynthetic pigment complement. Plant Cell Environment 23:539-548.
Norval M, Lucas RM, Cullen AP, de Gruijl FR, Longstreth J, Takizawa Y, van der Leun JC (2011). The human health effects of ozone depletion and interactions with climate change. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 10:199-225.
Olle M, Virsile A (2013). The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality. Agricultural and Food Science 22:223-234.
Pereira-Dias L, Chávez-González G, Bracho-Gil M, Fita A, Vilanova S, Luna-Ruiz JJ, Pérez-Cabrera LE, Arredondo-Figueroa JL, Rodríguez-Burruezo A (2017). Use of molecular markers to assist the development of inbred lines under open field conditions: the case of criollo peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) from Mexico. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 45(2):365-368.
Rodríguez-Burruezo A, Prohens J, Raigón MD, Nuez F (2009). Variation for bioactive compounds in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.) and implications for breeding. Euphytica 170:169-181.
Serrano-Carmeño Z (2005). Construcción de invernaderos, 3rd edition. Mundiprensa, Madrid, Spain (in Spanish).
Smith H (1982). Light quality, photoreception and plant strategy. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 33:481-518.
Sneep M, Ubachs W (2005). Direct measurement of the Rayleigh scattering cross section in various gases. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 92:293-310.
Snowden MC, Cope KR, Bugbee B (2016). Sensitivity of seven diverse species to blue and green light: Interactions with Photon Flux. PLoS One 11(10), 0163121.
Son KH, Oh MM (2013). Leaf shape, growth, and antioxidant phenolic compounds of two lettuce cultivars grown under various combinations of blue and red light-emitting diodes. HortScience 48:988-995.
Stamnes K. 1997. Transfer of ultraviolet light in the atmosphere and ocean: a tutorial review. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. NATO ASI Series pp 49-64. Springer, Berlin.
Tardieu F (2013). Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand, and negative effects of water deficit. Frontiers in Physiology 4:17.
Terashima I, Fujita T, Inoue T, Chow WS, Oguchi R (2009). Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green. Plant and Cell Physiology 50:684-697.
Toor RK, Savage GP, Lister CE (2006). Seasonal variations in the antioxidant composition of greenhouse grown tomatoes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19:1-10.
Ureña-Sánchez R, Callejón-Ferré AJ, Pérez-Alonso J, Carreño-Ortega A (2012). Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels. Scientia Agricola 69:233-239.
Yorio NC, Goins G, Kagie H, Wheeler R, Sager JC (2001). Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red LEDs with blue light supplementation. HortScience 36:380-383.
Zivanovic B, Vidovic M, Komic SM, Jovanovic L, Kolarz P, Morina F, Jovanovic SV (2017). Contents of phenolics and carotenoids in tomato grown under polytunnels with different UV-transmission rates. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 41:113-120.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.