Investigation of Mineral and Vitamin C Contents in Different Parts of Beetroots (Beta vulgaris L.)
Due to the increasing popularity of today’s health-conscious culture, beetroot plays an increasingly important role in a healthy, varied diet. While it contains vitamins B1, B2, B6, P, as well as high levels of vitamin C, several studies have proven its role in the prevention of many cancers. The aim of this study was to compare morphological properties, dry matter, and vitamin C and minerals contents in the different parts (peel, end, middle and top part of root) of the three investigated beetroot cultivars grown in treated and untreated soil. Fertilizer was added to the treated soil before sowing of the beet seeds, while untreated soil was not treated. The vitamin C contents were measured using HPLC method, while determination of element contents was determined with IPC-OES. The study showed that the beetroots grow in the treated soil had improved morphological properties, but a significant difference was not found. For Vitamin C and element contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn), it was observed a high degree of diversity in the different beetroot parts and between the cultivation years. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of the examined parameters within the beetroot body in different beetroot cultivars observing the differences produced by the addition of fertilizer. Some elements were concentrated in the peel and top part such as Ca, Mn and Mg. The peel part of the beetroots contained relevantly higher Fe content than the top, middle and end part. Based on these results, significant differences were observed among the investigated beetroot cultivars regards of the body weight.
In press - Online First. Article has been peer reviewed, accepted for publication and published online without pagination. It will receive pagination when the issue will be ready for publishing as a complete number (Volume 47, Issue 3, 2019). The article is searchable and citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI). DOI link will become active after the article will be included in the complete issue.
Atamanova A, Brezhneva TA, Slivkin AI, Nikolaevskii VA, Selemenev VF, Mironenko NV (2005). Isolation of saponins from table beetroot and primary evaluation of their pharmacological activity. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal 39(12):650-652.
Azeredo HMC (2009). Betalains: Properties, sources, applications and stability - A review. International Journal of Science & Technology 44(12):2365-2376.
Chawla K, Parle M, Sharma K, Yadav M (2016). Beetroot: A health promoting functional food. Inventi Rapid: Nutraceuticals 1(1):0976-3872.
Chhikara N, Kushwaha K, Sharma P, Gat Y, Panghal A (2019). Bioactive compounds of beetroot and utilization in food processing industry: A critical review. Food Chemistry 272:192-200.
Clifford T, Howatson G, West DJ, Stevenson EJ (2015). The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease. Nutrients 7(4):2801-2822.
Delgado-Vargas F, Jiménez AR, Paredes-López O (2000). Natural pigments: Carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains – characteristic, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 40(3):173-289.
Dias MG, Camoes MFGFC, Oliveira L (2009). Carotenoids in traditional Portuguese fruits and vegetable. Food Chemistry 113(3):808-815.
Guldiken B, Toydemir G, Nur Memis K, Okur S, Boyacioglu D, Capanoglu E (2016). Home-processed red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) products: Changes in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17(6):858.
Jastrebova J, Witthoft C, Grahn A, Svensson U, Jagerstad M (2003). HPLC determination of folates in raw and processed beetroots. Food Chemistry 80(4):579-588.
Kazimierczak R, Siłakiewicz A, Hallmann E, Średnicka-Tober D, Rembiałkowska E (2016). Chemical composition of selected beetroot juices in relation to beetroot production system and processing technology. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici 44(2):491-498.
Koczka N, Stefanovits-Bányia É, Prokaj E (2018). Element composition, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of wild and cultivated blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) fruits and leaves during the harvest time. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici 46(2):563-569.
Kugler F, Graneis S, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2007). Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C 62(5-6):311-318.
Kujala TS, Vienola MS, Klika KD, Loponen JM, Pihlaja K (2002). Betalain and phenolic compositions of our beetroot (Beta vulgaris) cultivars. European Food Research and Technology 214(4):505-510.
Lidder S, Webb AJ (2013). Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite oxide pathway. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 75(3):677-696.
Maere R (1988). HPLC in food analysis. Academic Press, London, pp 172-179.
Monteiro R, Azevedo I (2010). Chronic inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Mediator of Inflammation doi: 10. 1155 /2010 /289645.
Mroczek A, Kapusta I, Janda B, Janiszowska W (2012). Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60(50):12397-12402.
Neelwarne B (2013). Red beet biotechnology. In: Food and Pharmacentical Applications. Springer Sciense and Business, New York, pp 199-243.
Neményi A, Stefanovits-Bányai É, Pék Z, Hegedűs A, Gyuricza C, Barócsi Z, Helyes L (2015). Total antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of Phyllostachys taxa shoots. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici 43(1):64-69.
Ninfali P, Angelino D (2013). Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla amd rubra. Fitoterapia 89:188-199.
Ouda BA, Mahadeen AY (2008). Effect of fertilizers on growth, yield, yield components, quality and certain nutrient contents in broccoli (Brassica oleracea). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 10(6):627-632.
Podolak I, Galanty A, Sobolewska D (2010). Saponins as cytotoxic agents: a review. Phytochemistry Reviews 9(3):425-474.
Rebecca J, Sharmila S, Das MP, Seshiah C (2014). Extraction and purification of carotenoids from vegetables. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 6(4):594-598.
Sawicki T, Baczek N, Wiczkowiski W (2016). Betalain profile, content and antioxidant capacity of red beetroot dependent on the genotype and root part. Journal of Functional Foods 27:249-261.
Shing B, Hathan BS (2014). Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of beetroot - a review. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 5(1):679-684.
Slatnar A, Stampar F, Vebaric R, Jakopic J (2015). HPLC-MS(n) identification of betalains profile of different beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) parts and cultivars. Journal of Food Science 80(9):1952-1958.
Stintzing FC, Carle R (2004). Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food and in human nutrition. Trend in Food Science and Technology 15(1):19-38.
Váli L, Fébel H, Stefanovits-Bányai É, Sárdi É, Lugasi A, Szentmihályi K, Blázovics A (2006). Duodenum protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra) during hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion. Acta Alimentaria 35(4):445-453.
Váli L, Stefanovits-Bányai É, Szentmihályi K, Fébel H, Sárdi É, Lugasi A, Kocsis I, Blázovics A (2007). Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion. Nutrition 23(2):172-178.
Wruss J, Waldenberger G, Huemer S, Uygun P, Lanzerstorfer P, Müller U, Höglinger O, Weghuber J (2015). Compositional characteristics of commercial beetroot products and beetroot juice prepared from seven beetroot varieties grown in Upper Austria. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 42:46-55.
Yashwant K (2015). Beetroot: A super food. International Journal of Engineering Studies and Technical Approach 1:20-26.
Zohary D, Hopf M, Weiss E (2012). Domestication of plants in the old world: The origin and spread of domesticated plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. Oxford University Press.
Zwart FJ, Slow S, Payne RJ, Lever M, George PM, Gerrard JA, Chambers ST (2003). Glycine betaine and glycine betaine analogues in common foods. Food Chemistry 83(2):197-204.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.