The Effect of a Sugar-Containing Preservative on Senescence-Related Processes in Cut Clematis Flowers

  • Julita RABIZA-ŚWIDER Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture, Department of Ornamental Plants, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3599-0051
  • Ewa SKUTNIK Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture, Department of Ornamental Plants, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5788-6426
  • Agata JĘDRZEJUK Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture, Department of Ornamental Plants, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6258-0598
Keywords: ammonium, cysteine protease, free proline, proteolysis

Abstract

Clematis is a new species grown as cut flower, whose vase life is variable and cultivar-depended. Little is known about senescence of its cut flowers and their response to flower preservatives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a preservative (standard preservative SP, 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate plus sucrose) or a biocide solution (8-HQC) on certain senescence-related processes in cut clematis flowers. Analyses were done immediately after harvest and at the end of the vase life when control flowers held in water were wilting. A possible relationship between senescence parameters and the vase life of clematis taxa was also sought. As in most cut flowers, the contents of reducing sugars and soluble proteins in clematis petals decreased during the vase life while the proteolytic activity, including that of the cysteine protease, increased and was accompanied by accumulation of free proline and ammonium. Cut flower longevity in cultivars under study was not associated with the initial levels of reducing sugars, soluble proteins or free proline. Neither was the initial proteolytic activity or its increase during vase life related to the vase life itself: cultivars having comparable life spans differed dramatically in the initial and final proteolytic activities. Both solutions containing 8-HQC significantly affected the senescence-related processes and flowers held in them had more soluble proteins and lower proteolytic activity (total, and that of the cysteine protease) than control flowers held in water. Approximately a twofold increase in reducing sugars was observed in flowers held in SP relative to those held in water or in 8-HQC while the accumulation of free proline and ammonium was limited in their petals. This suggests a regulating action of exogenous sugar in senescence of clematis flowers. However, the delay of senescence produced by the preservative was not always associated with a longer vase life in any given cultivar. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of sugar in clematis flower senescence.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Azad AK, Ishikawa T, Ishikawa T, Sawa Y, Shibata H (2008). Intracellular energy depletion triggers programmed cell death during petal senescence in tulip. Journal of Experimental Botany 59:2085-2095.

Azeez A, Sane AP, Bhatnagar D, Nath P (2007). Enhanced expression of serine proteases during floral senescence in Gladiolus. Phytochemistry 68:1352-1357.

Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39:205-207.

Bradford MM (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye-binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72:248-254.

Britto DT, Kronzucker HJ (2002). NH4+ toxicity in higher plants: a critical review. Journal of Plant Physiology 159:567-584.

Brzin J, Kidri? M (1996). Proteinases and their inhibitors in plants: Role in normal growth and in response to various stress conditions. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews 13:421-468.

Chen SJ, Hung KT, Kao CH (1997). Ammonium accumulation is associated with senescence of rice leaves. Plant Growth Regulation 21:195-201.

Courts GD, Gartner JB, McCollum JP (1965). Effect of senescence and preservative on respiration in cut flowers of Rosa hybrida `Velvet Times'. Proceedings of American Society of Horticultural Science 86:779-780.

Eason JR, de Vré LA, Somerfield SD, Heyes JA (1997). Physiological changes associated with Sandersonia aurantiaca flower senescence in response to sugar. Postharvest Biology and Technology 12:43-50.

Eason JR, Ryan DJ, Pinckney TT, O’Donoghue EM (2002). Programmed cell death during flower senescence: isolation and characterization of cysteine proteinases from Sandersonia aurantiaca. Functional Plant Biology 29:1055-1064.

Feller U, Fischer A (1994). Nitrogen metabolism in senescing leaves. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 13:241-273.

Fichman Y, Gerdes SY, Kovacs H, Szabados L, Zilberstein A, Csonka LN (2015). Evolution of proline biosynthesis: enzymology, bioinformatics, genetics, and transcriptional regulation. Biological Reviews Cambridge Philosophical Society 90:1065-1099.

Granell A, Cercos M, Carbonell J (1998). Plant cysteine proteinases in germination and senescence. In: Barrett AJ, Rawlings ND, Woessner JF (Eds). The handbook of proteolytic enzymes. San Diego, London Academic Press pp 578-583.

Halevy AH, Mayak S (1979). Senescence and postharvest physiology of cut flowers, part 1. Horticultural Reviews 1:204-236.

Hong Z, Lakkineni K, Zhang Z, Verma DPS (2000). Removal of feedback inhibition of 1-pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase results in increased proline accumulation and protection of plants from osmotic stress. Plant Physiology 122:1129-1136.

Ichimura K, Kohata K, Goto R (2000). Soluble carbohydrates in Delphinium and their influence on sepal abscission in cut flowers. Physiologia Plantarum 108:307-313.

J?drzejuk A, Rochala J, Zakrzewski J, Rabiza-?wider J (2012). Identification of xylem occlusions occurring in cut clematis (Clematis L., fam. Ranunculaceae Juss.) stems during their vase life. The Science World Journal Article ID 749281. doi:10.1100/2012/749281.

Jones ML, Chaffin GS, Eason JR, Clark DG (2005). Ethylene-sensitivity regulates proteolytic activity and cysteine protease gene expression in petunia corollas. Journal of Experimental Botany 56:2733-2744.

Kaltaler REL, Steponkus PL (1976). Factors affecting respiration in cut roses. Journal American Society for Horticultural Science 101:352-354.

Karolewski P (1996). Role of proline in higher plants under conditions of abiotic stress. Wiadomo?ci Botaniczne 40:67-81.

Kazemi M, Aran M, Zamani S (2011). Extending the vase life of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum Mariachi cv. Blue) with different preservative. American Journal of Plant Physiology 6:167-175.

Kumar N, Pal M, Srivastava GC (2009). Proline metabolism in senescing rose petals (Rosa hybrida L. ‘First Red’). The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 84:536-540.

Lauriere C, Daussant J (1983). Identification of ammonium dependent isoenzyme of glutamate dehydrogenase as the form induced by senescence or darkness stress in the first leaf of wheat. Physiologia Plantarum 58:89-92.

Lerslerwong L, Ketsa A, van Doorn WG (2009). Protein degradation and peptidase activity during petal senescence in Dendrobium cv. Khao Sanan. Postharvest Biology and Technology 52:84-90.

Lin CC, Kao CH (1996). Distributed ammonium assimilation is associated with growth inhibition of roots in rice seedlings caused by NaCl. Plant Growth Regulation 18:233-238.

Lin CC, Hsu YT, Kao CH (2002). Ammonium ion, ethylene, and NaCl-induced senescence of detached rice leaves. Plant Growth Regulation 37:85-92.

Matile P, Winkenbach F (1971). Function of lysosomes and lysosomalenzymes in the senescing corolla of morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea). Journal of Experimental Botany 22:759-771.

Nelson N (1944). A photometric adaptation of the Samogyi method for the determination of glucose. Journal Biology Chemistry 153:357-380.

Pak C, van Doorn WG (2005). Delay of Iris flower senescence by protease inhibitors. New Phytologist 165:473-480.

Paulin A (1971). Influence de la composition de la solution nutritive sur la teneur en divers acidés amines libres et en ammoniac des pétales de roses coupées [The effect of the preservative composition on the contents of free amino acids and ammonium in cut rose petals]. Annual Technology Agriculture 20:283-303.

Pun UK, Ichimura K (2003). Role of sugars in senescence and biosynthesis of ethylene in cut flowers. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 37:219-224.

Rabiza-?wider J, Skutnik E, J?drzejuk A (2017a). The effect of preservatives on water balance in cut clematis flowers. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 92:270-278.

Rabiza-?wider J, Skutnik E, J?drzejuk A, ?ukaszewska A (2017b). Extending the vase life of cut clematis flowers. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus 16:51-60.

Rogers HJ (2013). From models to ornamentals: how is flower senescence regulated? Plant Molecular Biology 82:563-574.

Rubinstein B (2000). Regulation of cell death in flower petals. Plant Molecular Biology 44:303-318.

Stephenson P, Rubinstein B (1998). Characterization of proteolytic activity during senescence in daylilies. Physiologia Plantarum 104:463-473.

Sugawara H, Shibuya K, Yoshioka T, Hashiba T, Satoh S (2002). Is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor involved in the regulation of petal wilting in senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers? Journal of Experimental Botany 53:407-413.

Valpuesta V, Lange NE, Guerrero C, Reid MS (1995). Upregulation of cysteine protease accompanies the ethylene in sensitive senescence of daylily (Hemerocallis) flowers. Plant Molecular Biology 28:575-582.

van Doorn WG (2004). Is petal senescence due to sugar starvation? Plant Physiology 134:35-42.

van Doorn WG, Balk PA, van Houwelingen AM, Hoeberichts FA, Hall RD, Vorst O, … van Wordragen MF (2003). Gene expression during anthesis and senescence in Iris flowers. Plant Molecular Biology 53:845-863.

Vierstra RD (1996). Proteolysis in plants: mechanism and functions. Plant Molecular Biology 32:275-302.

Wagstaff C, Leverentz MK, Griffiths G, Thomas B, Chanasut U, Stead AD, Rogers HJ (2002). Cysteine protease gene expression and proteolytic activity during senescence of Alstroemeria petals. Journal of Experimental Botany 53:233-240.

Weatherburn MW (1967). Phenol-hypochloride reaction for determination of ammonia. Analytical Chemistry 39:971-974.

Weinstein LH (1957). Senescence of roses: I. Chemical changes associated with senescence of cut ‘Better Times’ roses. Contributions of the Boyce Thompson Institute 19:33-48.

Wi?niewski K, Zagda?ska B (2001). Genotype-dependent proteolytic response of spring wheat to water deficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany 52:1455-63.

Yakimova E, Atanassova B, Kapchina-Toteva V (1997). Longevity and some metabolic events in postharvest spray-carnation (D. caryophyllus f. spray, Hort) flowers. Bulgarian Journal Plant Physiology 23:57-65

Yang CW, Kao CH (2000). Ammonium in relation to proline accumulation in detached rice leaves. Plant Growth Regulation 30:139-144.

Zagda?ska B, Wi?niewski K (1996). Endoproteinase activities in wheat leaves upon water deficit. Acta Biochimica Polonica 43:515-520.

Zhang L, Becker DF (2015). Connecting proline metabolism and signaling pathways in plant senescence. Frontiers in Plant Science 6:1-8.

Published
2018-12-21
How to Cite
RABIZA-ŚWIDER, J., SKUTNIK, E., & JĘDRZEJUK, A. (2018). The Effect of a Sugar-Containing Preservative on Senescence-Related Processes in Cut Clematis Flowers. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(2), 432-440. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47211379
Section
Research Articles