Identification of Soils Factors Influence in the Distributions of Tuber aestivum in Transylvanian Subcarpathian Hill, Romania
Truffles are one of the most hunted varieties of mushrooms in Europe due to their high price and their increasingly frequent use in the kitchen. As demonstrated by several studies, soil conditions are among the main factors that influence the spread and development of the black truffle species. The purpose of this study was to identify the soil factors which directly and indirectly influence the distribution of black truffles (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) in Romania and to identify the areas from the Subcarpathian Hills of Transylvania which are highly favourable to their existence and growth, using G.I.S. spatial analysis and databases which include soil characteristics (soil type, texture, gleization, stagno-gleization) and territorial localisation through GPS points indicating the samples of Tuber aestivum. By implementing the statistical model of spatial analysis (BSA – Bivariate Statistical Analysis) for each characteristic, a series of areas were classified into three classes of favourability (low, medium, high) for the growth of Tuber aestivum. The results were validated indirectly by comparing the overlapping of the areas from the high favourability class with the areas covered with tree species from the Quercus genus and directly, through field research (on the surfaces with maximum favourability), done by specialised truffle seekers. The results were validated with a very high confidence rate for both methods (method 1 - overlapping of approximatively 93%, method 2 - Tuber aestivum was identified on 12 out of 15 test surfaces from the high favourability class).
Benucci GMN, Bonito G, Baciarelli LF, Bencivenga M (2012). Mycorrhization of Pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis) with commercial truffle species: Tuber aestivum Vittad. and Tuber borchii Vittad. Mycorrhiza 22(5):383-392.
Ceruti A, Fontana A, Nosenzo C (2003). Le specie europee del genere Tuber. Una revisione storica. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturale, Torino 467.
Chendes V (2011). Resursele de apa din Subcarpatii de la Curbura. Evaluari geospatiale. Ed. Academiei Romane, Bucuresti.
Chevalier G (2009). The truffle of Europe (Tuber aestivum Vitt.): ecology and possibility of cultivation. In: Centre of Biodiversity (Ed). First Conference on the European Truffle Tuber aestivum/uncinatum. University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Csorbainé AG (2011). Studies on cultivation possibilities of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) and smooth black truffle (Tuber macrosporum Vittad.) in Hungary. Phd Thesis, Szent István University.
Dam SM, Trinh XN, Vo Trung A, Hoffmann S, Szeglet P (2012). Compare the effect of Terfezia and Tuber aestivum on Pinus caribaea development in Vietnam. In: 3rd International Conference on Biology, Environment and Chemistry IPCBEE 46:62-66.
Deveau A, Palin B, Delaruelle C, Peter M, Kohler A, Pierrat JC, Sarniguet A, Garbaye J, Martin F, Frey-Klett P (2007). The mycorrhiza helper Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8 has a specific priming effect on the growth, morphology and gene expression of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N. New Phytologist 175(4):743-755.
Garcia-Montero L, Moreno D, Monleon V, Arredondo-Ruiz F (2014). Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. Brûles. Forest Systems 23(2):394-399.
Gryndler M, Cerna L, Bukovska P, Hrselova H, Jansa J (2014). Tuber aestivum association with non-host roots. Mycorrhiza 24(8):603-610.
Gryndler M, Hrselova H (2012). Isolation of bacteria from ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum Vittad. Acta Mycologica 47(2):155-160.
Harley JL, Smith SE (1983). Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, London.
Linderman RG (1988). Mycorrhizal interactions with the rhizosphere microflora: the mycorrhizosphere effect. Phytopathology 78(3):366-371.
Mac I (1972). Subcarpatii Transilvaniei dintre Mures si Olt: studiu geomorphologic [Subcarpathians of Transylvania between Mure? and Olt: geomorphologic study]. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti.
Mihailescu V (1966). J’etat actual de nos connaissances sur le relief des Carpathes roumaines pendant le Quaternaire. Geographica Polonica, Geomorphological Problems of the Carpathians II 10:9-36.
Milenkovic M, Glamocija J, Velijovic V, Vukojevic J (1992). Record of two Tuber (T. aestivum and T. melanosporum) species in Serbia. Achieves of Biological Sciences 44:223-228.
Montecchi A, Sarasini M (2000). Funghi ipogei d’Europa. Associazione Micologica Bresadola (Eds). Fondazione Centro Studi Micologici, Trento.
Pacioni G, Pomponl G (1991). Genotypic patterns of some Italian populations of the Tuber aestivum - T. mesentericum complex. Mycotaxon 42:171-179.
Posea GR (1969). Asupra suprafetelor si nivelelor morfologice din sud-vestul Transilvaniei [On the surfaces and the morphological levels in the south-west of Transylvania]. Lucrarile Stiintifice ale Institutului Pedagogic din Oradea.
Stobbe U, Egli S, Tegel W, Peter M, Sproll L, Büntgen U (2013). Potential and limitations of Burgundy truffle cultivation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 97(12):5215-5224.
Streiblova E, Gryndlerova H, Valda S, Gryndler M (2010). Tuber aestivum – hypogeous fungus neglected in the Czech Republic: a review. Czech Mycology 61(2):163-173.
Wang G, Li Y, Li D, Tang Y (2008). Determination of 5 alphaandrost-16-en-3 alpha-ol in truffle fermentation broth by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatographyflame ionization detector/electron impact mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 870(2):209-215.
Wedén C, Pettersson L, Danell E (2009). Truffle cultivation in Sweden: Results from Quercus robur and Corylus avellana field trials on the island of Gotland. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 24(1):37-53.
Zambonelli A, Iotti M, Piattoni F (2012). Chinese Tuber aestivum sensu lato in Europe. The Open Mycology Journal 6:22-26.
Zoltán B, Merenyi Z, IIIyes Z, Laszlo P, Attila A, Papp L, ... Brandt S (2009). Studies on ecophysiology of Tuber aestivum populations in Carpatho-Pannonian region. Acta Mycologica 47(2):221-226.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.